Oil gas gathering
Tarim Oilfield Gathering and transportation of oil and gas
The oil collecting, using human and horse ancient Chinese in early fourteenth Century, Shaanxi extension, Yongping, Yijun, the oil production are in Yanan "Yanfeng depot" (see "Yuan Zhi unification"), the early 40's of the twentieth Century, the introduction of Yumen Oilfield blowout crude oil hill gully dam, reservoir, oil gas vent; crude oil by brick channels, taking advantage of the terrain elevation, into the oil station (the station). After 40 time metaphase, began laying pipeline, steam pipe heat tracing, in the oil station for oil and gas separation, crude oil measurement and storage tank, oil field gas metering, in part through the gas pipeline, as civil and industrial fuels, part of vent. 50 years later, with the emergence of new oil fields, gathering network, product measurement, oil separation, transfer, the dehydration of crude oil and crude oil storage technology and the corresponding development. By the age of 70, gathering and transportation process of continuous improvement, not heating (room temperature) gathering, oil hydrocarbon vapor recovery, crude oil stability, oil field gas treatment and oil gas measurement techniques have developed.
Oil and gas gathering and transportation engineering design and construction according to the design of oilfield development, oil and gas properties, product scheme and natural conditions of. Transmission oil and gas gathering process requires: rational use of the pressure of the well, and try to reduce the number of receive booster, reduce energy consumption; ② considering thermal conditions during the manufacturing process, reduce the number of repeated heating, heat balance, reduce fuel consumption; the flow closed, reduce oil and gas loss; the full collection and utilization of oil and gas resource, production of qualified products, the purification of crude oil, oil and gas purification, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas and water purification (with reinjection formation or discharge requirements); the advanced technology, reasonable economy, safety and applicable.
The East China Sea oil and gas gathering and transportation of oil and gas
Including gathering network settings, oil product measurement, gas-liquid separation, the supercharger and oil hydrocarbon vapor recovery, the whole process of closed.
Gathering pipe network layout according to the oil field area and shape, oilfield surface topography and terrain, oil products and production conditions. Oil field general area, can be divided into pieces with a number of independent and system; the small size of the oilfield, the establishment of a system. System from the wellhead to the metering station for oil pipeline; from several metering station to the transfer station for the oil gathering pipeline. In the two line, phase conveying mixed oil, gas, water three phase medium in the same pipeline. In the transfer station, gas, liquid after separation of oil-water mixture, sealed pump to crude oil dehydration station, or central processing station. Dehydration of crude oil continued to delivery to the mine depot or station. From the transfer station after crude oil dehydration station (or central treatment station) to mine depot (or station) of the crude oil pipeline for oil pipeline. The transfer station on the separation buffer tank pressure, the oil gas is delivered to the central treatment station or compressor station, after transportation. From the transfer station to the central treatment station or gas station oil and gas pipeline for gas gathering pipelines. From the casing gas wells recovery from the oil tank, and recovery of hydrocarbon vapor, can be incorporated into the gas gathering pipelines. To take measures of gas gathering pipeline.
Pipeline thermal conditions choice according to China most oil production "three high" (high wax content of crude oil, high pour point, high viscosity) specific situation, in order to make the gathering of oil, gas, water is not set, so the low viscosity, safe transport, from the wellhead to the metering station or transfer station, general the use of heating pipeline. The main methods are: ① well
Oil gas gathering
Port setting water jacket furnace, and in the pipeline configuration heating furnace, heating oil and gas; the wellhead and the oil pipeline with steam or hot water heating; from the well mixed with hot water or hot oil etc.. Unheated gathering and transportation is a technology developed in recent years, can obtain very good technical and economic benefits. In addition to oil products have enough temperature or moisture, favorable conditions has no heating, should also be based on the situation, the following measures: ① periodically from the wellhead to oil pipelines, oil pipelines for rubber ball or chemical agent ball of wax removal, and at the same time, pipe shall be buried or insulation the water cut wells; part of a chemical agent is added from the wellhead, in order to pipeline demulsification, reducing friction, reducing viscosity; ③ continuously into normal temperature water from the wellhead doped (can contain a small amount of chemical agent) gathering. In the transfer station, generally require heating transportation.
Set path pipeline selection requirements: ① according to well, standing position; the line short and straight as possible, set up crossing engineering in necessary; ③ considering terrain along the ground, and relations with other pipeline; to meet the technological requirements, and set the appropriate pipeline cleaning and processing accident facilities.
Pipeline diameter and wall thickness, and thermal insulation measures, determined through hydraulic calculation, thermodynamic calculation and strength to.
In order to control the oil well production dynamic, usually on the metering station. A metering station jurisdiction wells 5 to 10 or more, for each oil well production of oil, gas, water yield regularly, timing, rotation measurement. Gas, liquid and separation in the metering separator for respectively metering, mixing into the oil gathering pipeline metering separator two-phase and three-phase two classes. The product is divided into two-phase separator of oil gas and liquid; three-phase separator to high water cut oil products are divided into gas, free water and emulsified oil; then using flow meter respectively calculate volume flow. Volume flow water oil must be converted to the quality of crude oil flow. Oil well oil, gas, water metering allowable error of ± 10-.
In order to meet the need of oil and gas processing, storage and transmission, gas, liquid mixture to be separated. Gas, liquid separation technology and oil and gas composition, pressure, temperature. High pressure oil products should adopt multistage separation process. Production separator has two and three-phase two. Because oil, gas, water in different proportions, the gravity, centrifugal methods such as oil, gas, water separation. Separator structure types of vertical and horizontal; high, low, in different pressure levels. Type and size separator should be processing gas, liquid volume and pressure size selected. Treatment of large amount of separator adopts a horizontal structure. Gas, liquid separation after entering different pipeline.
When oil wells products cannot rely on its own to the transportation pressure, need to transfer booster, continue to transport. The general gas, liquid separation after booster: liquid pump pressure; gas for oil field compressor booster. To guarantee the steady, safe operation and achieve the necessary requirements of the process, the liquid booster station must have a separation buffer tank.
In the centralized processing station, the crude oil dehydration station or gas station for processing crude oil and gas field. Process for production of meet the export standards of oil and gas products. Including the dehydration of crude oil, crude oil stability, liquid hydrocarbon recovery and oil gas desulfurization, dehydration.
Removal of crude oil in the free water and emulsified water transporting crude oil, to not more than 0.5- moisture content standards. Dehydration method according to the crude oil physical property, water content, degree of emulsification, chemical demulsifier performance, determined by test. Process by thermochemical settling removal of free water and the electrochemical removal of emulsified water. Oil containing salt and sand, generally with the water out. Chemical settling dehydration should as far as possible with the pipeline of crude oil demulsification matched. The dehydrator for airtight vertical or horizontal vessel, usually installed inside the multilayer electrode, automatic control, oil water interface and input voltage, the stable operation, the sewage into the sewage treatment for reinjection formation after prolapse. Chinese achievements in the chemical synthesis of demulsifier, screening and dewatering equipment development.
The removal of dissolved in crude oil, propane, ethane, methane hydrocarbon gas components, prevent them away a lot of liquid hydrocarbon in the volatile, thereby reducing the evaporation loss of crude oil during storage and transportation. The stabilized crude oil saturated vapor pressure does not exceed the maximum storage pressure the local temperature. The stability of the process, but also can obtain the liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas. Crude Stabilization with negative pressure degassing, flash heating and distillation method. The vacuum degassing method as an example, the stable process is: dehydrated crude oil into the stable tower, vacuum compressor gas in crude oil extraction, oil and gas processing device to. The stability of crude oil flows from the bottom, into the oil storage tank. The stability of crude oil and hydrocarbon component content, crude oil physical property, stable depth requirements and other factors, the oil field to select appropriate methods according to the specific situation.
Oil gas desulfurization, dehydration, liquid hydrocarbon recovery process and the natural gas treatment process is basically the same (see gas gathering and processing).
Oil and gas storage and transportation (shipping) will meet the export standards of crude oil storage, measurement output (Sinotrans) process and oil gas pressure measurement after transport.
In order to ensure the oil balance, safety in production, the export station or mine depot must meet certain storage period of oil tank. The number and total capacity of storage tanks should be according to the requirements of oilfield production process characteristics (railway, waterway transportation, pipeline transportation in different ways such as determining). The tank is generally vertical steel cylinder, a fixed roof and floating roof of two types, single tank capacity is generally 5000 ~ 20000m. Reduce heat loss, high pour point crude oil tank inside the heating coil, in order to maintain the temperature of crude oil tank, the tank should be equipped with fire protection and safety facilities.
And the handover is the gist of the economic accounting of oil products. Measurement requirements of continuity, instrument of high precision. Transporting crude oil using flow meter high precision continuous metering volume flow, multiplied by the density, minus the water content, the mass flow rate, the comprehensive measurement error of ± 0.35-. Crude oil flow meter tube for regular calibration with standard volume corresponding accuracy class. There is also useful in tank gauge (oil) method to calculate the volume of crude oil transportation, and then converted into the oil mass flow. Measurement of oil field and gas, differential pressure flowmeter consisting of general plan by throttling device and pressure, with pressure and temperature compensation, and
The volume flow rate, the comprehensive measurement error of ± 3-. Dry method of test for "orifice plate throttling device" (determined by the geometry precision of instrument calibration direct), also a sonic nozzle available corresponding levels of precision (critical flow nozzle) for regular calibration.
The last part of the crude oil gathering and transportation system. Pipeline is the oil pump oil from the export station directly transported outwards, with low cost, oil closed continuous operation and other advantages, is the main method of crude oil pipeline. Also the method of transportation is rail tank car, and the loaded tanker (barge) waterway transportation method. With the railway tank car (or tanker barge) to transport oil, be equipped with corresponding oil loading of Zhanqiao and the oil loading terminal. Remote and scattered small oil field also has the highway transportation by tank car, accordingly with automobile filling station (point).