America LCAC hovercraft
Sailing resistance, high speed. The ship .
The air is used in high power Blower The air pressure into the bottom, is formed by the bottom around the flexible apron or rigid side walls, the gas sealing device to limit their escape.
In early nineteenth Century, people have realized the compression Air Into the bottom can reduce the navigation resistance, improve the speed of the ship. In 1953, the British Cockerell founded cushion theory, through a large number of tests, completed in 1959 the world's first hovercraft, crossing English channel Success.
The hovercraft principle
After 1964, the hovercraft type is increased, widely used. Currently used as high-speed short distance passenger transport, leisure tourism, patrol, rescue, investigation and survey, commercial, military, speed up to 60 to 80 miles per hour.
The hovercraft is poor seakeeping, sailing in the storm stall larger. The hovercraft hull for general use Aluminium alloy High strength steel, or Glass steel Composite materials; aerospace power device The engine Or, high speed diesel engine Gas turbine ; bottom apron is made of high strength nylon rubber cloth, can be replaced when it is worn.
Britain is the earliest country development of hovercraft. In the early 60, Britain The Navy established hovercraft trials unit, the combat environment test a series of hovercraft of different types, such as for hunting mine, amphibious landing, missile, submarine, and select the appropriate from the boat. Equipped the Navy 50 ton BH7 type multi-purpose hovercraft. Where: BH7- V + type minehunting hovercraft carrying minehunting equipment, in height 3 meters sea conditions, were down to 10 knots. BH7- type V combat hovercraft is fast missile Patrol boat With two seats, "flying fish" warship missile and a twin 30 mm automatic gun. BH7- type IV logistics support hovercraft can carry 170 heavily armed landing force, or carrying a field 3 trucks and 60 fighters. There are 105 ton VT-2 missile hovercraft, equipped with 2 "Otto Matt" ship to ship missile and 1 76 mm automatic naval gun, the loading capacity of 32 tons, but also can be used as anti submarine, mine clearance, mine and logistical support.
Russia's Zubr class LCAC by St Petersburg "Almaz (Almaz)" The Central Design Bureau Design and construction of the shipbuilding company, a total length of 57.4 meters, 22.3 meters wide boat, said to be the world's largest air cushion ships. According to NATO reported, from 1986 after the Russian built ten aircraft Zubr class lcac. American Navy early in the The Vietnam War During the application of the air cushion landing craft, obtained the actual combat experience. Later in 1978 to build the JEFF (A), JEFF (B) two 160 ton amphibious air cushion landing experimental craft, through lots of experiments and comparison, confirmed by JEFF (B) as the basis for the development of the Navy landing craft air cushion (LCAC) plan. Start small volume production since 80 time, strengthen the trial practice and improvement, synchronous construction and technical support. America military put forward new landing concept: a large amphibious assault ships as the main body, carrying air cushion landing craft, amphibious tanks and Marines ocean going operations. In the Gulf War, the U.S. Navy 2 amphibious formation (including "wasp" class amphibious assault ship, "Whidbey island" class dock landing ship, ship) carrying 17 type LCAC air cushion landing craft, amphibious feint frequently, fully display power, to threaten and role play to the iraqi. In somalia, Haiti Crisis and Bangladesh flood relief operations, LCAC are successfully used, is best known as the modern landing craft. Japan And other countries also to order LCAC. USA army is also very pleased with the 26 LACV-30 air transport, and ready to purchase more load air transport boat.
France With a total weight of 27 tons, speed 60 knots, can carry 120 soldiers of military hovercraft. Canada Making the weight of 35 ton "boatman" level, as The Arctic Military material transportation. Also Finland , australia, Indonesia Many countries are working on the development of military application in hovercraft.
The British air Platform Co established in 1970, responsible for the development, design and manufacturing of heavy lift hovercraft. This unique experience and knowledge, and the successful design, 40 years of development and operation, combined with the marine industry and infrastructure construction, the British air Platform Co become the International Crane hovercraft most
The hovercraft is to use the lift fan will be compressed air into the bottom, forming a "air cushion" and the supporting surface, the ship away from the bearing surface of high performance ship, the British made the world's first hovercraft is full cushion lift.
Air cushion ship by air propeller propulsion, navigation boat out of the water, so it has unique amphibian and good speed. In the military, air cushion vehicle is the most ideal landing combat transport equipment, its high speed, amphibious landing landing speed greatly improved, increasing the tactical surprise, to have to go on, break break. Lift type hovercraft not only in the snow, Swamp Sailing, reef, also can be docked in the coastal islands no port facilities, the implementation of non continuous wharf organization of logistics supply, is conducive to the further assault; but also the minehunter Minesweeper, ideal boat. In addition, also can be used in the shallows, beaches, islands bear patrols, transportation, emergency and disaster relief missions.
Because The air cushion type hovercraft With good passing through performance, by the tide, water depth, mine barrier, landing obstacles and nearshore submarine slope, sediment is limited, thus in more than 70- of the world's off the coast of landing operations (drainage type landing craft only landed in 17- of the world's coastline). In addition, the LCAC in combat loading condition, still can be 30 to 40 or even higher speed, shorten the landing forces exposed to enemy shore fire time, accelerate the landing speed, improves the safety of the landing force.
Now, America Navy The new full lift type air cushion landing craft LCAC air cushion landing craft The most advanced. LCAC LCAC service, and various landing ship has a synergy test, it can rely on its own power and manipulation of free import and export of various landing ship dock. The Gulf War In the boat, LCAC participated in the amphibious feint "lightning strikes near the" large-scale exercises. Now, Russia Having the world's largest air cushion landing ships. (see the data.)
The hovercraft has rigid side wall of both sides of the ship into the water, and gas sealing device of flexible apron form, can reduce air leakage. Sailing, the lift fan dedicated to bottom inflatable air cavity is formed, the ship floating on the water surface. It is often used in light Diesel engine Or gas turbine as power plant, water Propeller Or water jet propulsion, speed up to 20 ~ 90; have the maneuverability and heading stability is good, but do not have the amphibious. The hovercraft gas cavity in the air is not easy to drain, Tuolibi full cushion lift, and small power consumption, suitable for the construction of large ships, so its military.
Pay attention to, think it lift the hovercraft is more promising than the pad, American Navy even called it "a great revolution in the development history of surface warship". Especially in recent years, with the progress of technology, improve the life of the replacement apron apron cost down and under the water, and the air cushion system using navigation control device, it swings in waves and greatly improved performance. Rigid side wall of modern sidewall hovercraft has developed into two slender ship, which has the advantages of high speed catamarans, also known as the air cushion catamaran or surface effect ship (SES), is a kind of very rapid development of ship.
1985. The Soviet Navy Built the world's first ship used as a missile frigate sidewall hovercraft "sea lion". At present, except russia, Norway , used as a surface effect ship mine countermeasures craft and anti submarine frigate Spain were developed drainage capacity of 370 tons. American Navy in a series of experiments on the basis of the success, is in the process of development of sidewall hovercraft is relatively large, such as 3000 tons Guided missile destroyer Etc..
The development of China hovercraft. From 50 time later period, the development and application of Chinese began to air cushion technology and hovercraft. Over the past 40 years, the air cushion technology, by studying the principle, model test, middle test and trial, has basically mastered full lift type and sidewall hovercraft technology, into the development and application of practical model stage. Development and application of air cushion technology, adapt to the need for military and civilian construction, A ship In the specific environment (such as shallow rapids rapids, rivers, swamps, shallow beach, Estuary Inshore and snow area) to create the conditions of navigation and amphibious landings.
In the late 50, to explore a new technique of air cushion, the country more than 40 units organized forces, began the principle research and model test, then the trial manned test
Vehicle and test. Some units for aviation engine as power, the air propeller or jet propulsion; hovercraft some unit developed and can go ashore; also some units are developed using primarily experimental ground effect machine or air cushion vehicle to land, known as "floating car", "no wheel", "hovercraft" etc.. Although the name is different, but the essence is the cushion type air cushion model. When the test ship are not installed apron, maneuverability is poor, the offshore and onshore have found many problems, just stay in the stage of research and application of the principle of. In 1960, deputy director of the national defense science and Technology Commission Zhang Aiping Chaired the national air cushion technology conference, exhibition site. The test vehicle and experimental craft, clear to ship as the main research direction, and decided to shorten the front, the relative concentration of forces, step by step, the key techniques of tissue research collaboration, and changed the past "times blossom" situation. After 1961, the country is in a period of adjustment, the shortage of funds for scientific research, material supply difficulties, many units have stopped on the air cushion technology, appeared the phenomenon of change radically.
1962. Country Science and technology professional ship group made ten years the development of marine science and Technology (1963 to 1972) planning, will be the development of air cushion technology included in the planning project. National Defense Science and Technology Commission determined by seven yuan, continue to organize the work. From 1963 to 1967, air Shenyang Song Ling Machinery Factory in the area Piston engine Have developed into cushion air test boat "Song Ling L", "Song Ling 2", and "Song Ling 3". The initial single peripheral apron, and then switch to peripheral jet ham shaped flexible apron, in Songhua River, Lushun Coastal and Liaohe River The water area of the sea trial. Shanghai The 708 Research Institute of special organizations, established research institutions, in 1963 after five years in succession Hudong Shipyard Trial production of a total weight of 4 tons of small whole lifting test boat type air cushion 711-1 number and 711-2 number. Initially adopt the hardware peripheral jet, and then adding the ham shaped flexible apron, and finally in the 71l-2 boat to sac finger apron, after the completion of all the first in Shanghai Dianshan Lake And The Huangpu River Repeated tests, a soaring, propulsion, focus, overturning, stability and lateral drift problems of basic properties of ACV in. 711-2 lifeboat and after improving, the controllable pitch propeller pitch variable air sign, the whole boat Electromechanical system Steering and driving control by one person, plus Aprons and steering linkage, the radius of gyration of the boat was reduced significantly, maneuverability is improved greatly, has successfully into river, across the paddy fields, ditches, beyond the back beach landing, the lake trial speed reached 98 km / h. In 1967 Sichuan Jinsha River and Yunnan Lancang River Xishuangbanna trials, in turbulent flow in the upstream Beach Beach success. The boat Fanhu after improvement, and along the Huangpu River, up to the Yangtze River Estuary Zhoushan Coast of seakeeping test. In the meantime, in order to explore the hull sides add into water to form a rigid structure of side wall and convenient water propeller operation in 1966, 708 Institute of design, trial production of sidewall air cushion test boat No. 711-3, through sea trials in Dianshan Lake and Huang Pujiang, and to the Jinsha River, Lancang River And Zhoushan and other places to carry out a series of intermediate test, smooth over the rapids and bubble jet water (which is transverse stability and tail gas seal, plus hydrofoil experiments), initial success. Through a number of tests the intermediate experimental craft, Chinese began to master the basic law application of air cushion technique in ship in the practice,
Landing in China type 724 landing craft air cushion
To create the conditions for the trial.
The winter of 1965, deputy director of the State Science and Technology Commission Zhang Youxuan A ship technology policy discussion, decided to promote the development of domestic hovercraft, developed to solve the urgent task of developing and using craft for the target. Since then, a total of the whole cushion type trial boat type 2, side wall test, trial of boat type 4, from inland to coastal deep test.
At the right is a landing exercise. China "Dagu" class (722-2) landing craft air cushion from the "934" landing ship by pictures.
In the late 60, the need for adaptation between the coastal islands of traffic, the people's Liberation Army General Logistics Department commissioned 708 research institute design air cushion transportation trial boat type 716, 1978 by Hudong Shipyard built. The boat weighing 16 tons, the design capacity 2 tons, year in Dianshan Lake trial, speed of 100 km / h.. After adjusting range The East China Sea Region trial, for the discovery of aviation piston engine with high volatile gasoline is easy to cause accident and stop using.
In 1975, the Navy plans to test air cushion landing, commissioned 708 research institute design medium lift type air cushion landing test boat type 722. In metallurgy, machine
722 series air cushion landing craft
The factory machinery, aviation and other industrial sectors and Tianjin's assistance, the boat was built in 1979 and debugging. The boat weighing 65 tons, with a bow and stern door, can install l carriages or 1 landing infantry reinforced company, a capacity of 15 tons, the hull is made of aluminium, aviation gasoline piston engines with retired repair 4 Taiwan, the total power of 4 × 1100 kilowatts, speed of 89.8 km / h.. In 1980, the boat two long range test: the first round Tanggu Second, Qinhuangdao, across the The Gulf of Bohai Around Chengshantou arrived, Qingdao The two voyage, a total of about 800 nautical miles. The test results show that, stability, mat boats rise, manipulation of good and fast, parts, shaft and aprons in the careful maintenance can run normally, but the host high failure rate, large noise, poor corrosion resistance in marine environments, especially in highly volatile gasoline as fuel does not comply with the actual requirements of only as a pilot, with. From 1981 to 1982, the 708 Institute, the Navy and the 702 Research Institute, in close cooperation, in the Qingdao sea and the East China Sea Wusong Offshore organization two times in 3 sea situation seakeeping and resistance test, vibration of hull structure, the stress, strain and apron cabin noise test, provides the hand sea experimental data for the development of practical model.
After 60 years, the domestic research for side wall air cushion craft very active trial. The late 60's, in order to adapt to the, Jinsha River Fast passenger transport, the design consists of 708 studies, Hudong Shipyard in the side wall air cushion type 713, and in 1971 Chongqing The steamship company trial. The boat is aluminum structure, with 12V135 turbocharged high speed diesel made the first trial of engine power, carry more than 80. But because the host failure, repair is difficult, poor economic returns, so no formal operation in 1973, after the idle. In 1977, the submarine refitted and repair, and other hovercraft together for formation of remote trial, a voyage from Chongqing to Yibin Again, back to Jinsha River New town After returning to Yibin, and back to the Min River Leshan , and then back to Chongqing, the entire 1500 kilometers, has withstood the rapids, steep, bank, large vortex and sharp bend test.
In 1967, the people's Liberation Army General Logistics Department commissioned 708 research institute design, new shipyard in shallow water jet block jet propulsion side wall air cushion type 717. The boat was built in 1973, the total weight of 12 tons, 2 tons, domestic 12V150ZC diesel engine as the host computer, the power is 220 kilowatts, the speed of only 42.8 km / hour, does not meet the design requirements. The boat in 1975 after withdrawal, back to the 708 Research Institute of improvement, the improved named 717-A type, its control performance is good, from the terminal on convenient, the speed of 48.5 km / hour, can drive in congested channel.
The beginning of the 70's, Shanghai scientific research ship Committed to the use of glass steel hull structure, suitable for riverine area using the air passenger boats development work. According to the characteristics of inland water shallow, bay, the ship, speed not too fast, we developed 5 tons full glass steel side wall experimental craft double fan linkage test is successful, 1975.
In 1970, the 708 institute design of steel hull, Glass steel The superstructure of the coastal side wall air cushion test boat type 719, host of the 3 sets of 12V180Z type high speed diesel engines, each of 880 kW power. Due to the impact of ten years of turmoil, the boat until 1978 was completed. The boat speed is low, only 64.8 km / hour, from Fuzhou CSC 470 miles to Shanghai, along the way, as many tests, found the problem of shafting vibration, apron ripping and tail sealing mud etc.. In 1983 the boat improved named 719-1, a increase of 6.5 meters, weight increase to 96 tons, class increased to 180, speed 57 km / h, economy has improved. The boat is Wuhu shipyard To undertake the construction, completed in Nanjing Tourism company.
Through the above each trial in inland, coastal boat experiments carried out, we basically mastered the application of air cushion technology in ship lift, propulsion, speediness, stability and controllability of many problems, and from the practice and theory study on air cushion ship seakeeping, for practical lay a foundation.
In order to promote the application of air cushion technique in ship development work early in 1980 May, the State Council utility, National Defense Industrial Office hosted the national air cushion technology conference second. According to the conference, air cushion technology China so long stay in the test and trial boat stage, mainly due to the lack of power equipment system applicable, and the hull and flexible apron materials do not support. In view of research funding is limited, so from the development of small, inland with hovercraft began gradually to the estuarine, coastal, medium boat practical transition. 1982 October held the third air cushion technology professional meetings, check the study to practical difficulties and problems in the transition occurs, further Unity of thinking , strengthen leadership, put forward measures and the measures to solve the problem. In the reform and open policy under the guidance of the relevant departments, the introduction of foreign advanced technology and equipment, after five years of efforts, the key equipment is basically solved, the hovercraft development business finally entered the practical stage.
(1) with the side wall jet air passenger boats inland
In the early 80, Scientific Research Institute of Shanghai and shipping Anhui Province Water Science Research Institute to design WD401 inland side wall jet propulsion hovercraft, by Chaohu The shipyard built and small batch production. The boat weighing 16 tons, with 40 seats, sailing draft of 0.45 meters, speed of 32 km / h, has a good economy.
In 1981, 708 of 717-A type craft for second modifications, named type 717-C submarine, this prototype boats, the 717-2 type boat to carry up to 54 passengers were built for the design, the Chongqing steamship company" Minjiang River "Number, the 717-3 type boat to carry up to 70 passengers were built for the design, Chongqing ferry company. Two the boat speed was 46.9 km / h and 44 km / h, the cabin noise at 75 decibels, after the completion of all operations in Chongqing, from 1984 to October years of continuous service, usually from Chongqing to Luzhou One-way 249 kilometers, summer to Yibin one-way 372 kilometers, only need 6 hours to 8 hours and 30 minutes, greatly shorten the runtime
716 full lift type air cushion vehicle
716 full lift type air cushion vehicle
(2) the harbor estuary using side wall air cushion passenger boats
1980. Tianjin city Commissioned 708 research institute design and by the Dagu shipyard harbour side wall air cushion tourist boat "Jin Xiang" no.. The boat made of corrosion resistant aluminum alloy, promote the use of 2 sets of 12V150ZC type high speed diesel engine, lift with 1 sets of 12V150ZC host, the total power of 880 kw. From 1983 to 1985, the boat was in Shanghai to Nantong Line trial operation, reliable equipment, apron life up to 600 hours, various parts of normal, but poor seakeeping in state three.
In 1985, 708 of 719-l prototype boats, designed 719-2 type "," side wall hovercraft, by The shipyard Trial, the winter of 1987 delivery. The ship a total weight of 123.5 tons, TBD234V16 high speed diesel engine with 3 imported as a host, speed of 44 to 50 km / h, carry 258 passengers, for Shanghai to Chongming The short distance passenger transport, the crossing time from two hours to forty-five minutes. The operation shows that the ship, its stable performance, soaring, propulsion device is reliable, the life has adapted to the operating requirements of the apron, is one of the types of practical.
Type 724 landing craft air cushion
(3) small full lift type "air cushion jeep"
In order to use in the swamps, beaches, sludge and general car, boat hard to reach areas, Dagang Oilfield Command commissioned 708 Research Institute can train carrying small full lift type "air cushion jeep". The boat with corrosion resistant aluminum hull, with 2 cars Gasoline engine , power of 2 × 44 kilowatts, the propeller and balloon catheter type apron, weight 2.6 tons, can carry 8 passengers. User use, renew 4 ships. In order to reduce the failure rate and a host of blade flutter, the boat after the switch to imported DEUTZ air-cooled diesel engine (Deutz). The modified craft (type 7201) by Hangzhou Dongfeng shipyard, Wuhu shipyard and small batch production, we have built 17 ships, delivery on the military, the people's armed forces departments, The Yellow River The user Water Conservancy Committee and Dagang oil field etc.. 1987. Tourism Bureau of Henan Province Commissioned 708 Research Institute of design, Shanghai aircraft manufacturing factory Built for the Yellow River tourism 7212 full lift type hovercraft. The ship was built in 1989, named" Zhengzhou "No., weight 10.3 tons, to carry up to 33 passengers, with 3 DEUTZ BF6L913C Air cooled diesel engine (1 for lifting power, 2 used as propulsion), also equipped with 2 air ducted propeller, sub put tail about. The ship is used for practical hovercraft development of tourism resources in the Yellow River.
Chinese type 724 landing craft air cushion the landing exercise
Chinese type 724 landing craft air cushion the landing exercise
(4) the coastal full cushion air traffic boats and landing craft
In 1983, should the military needs, 708 Research Institute and Hudong Shipyard jointly responsible for the conversion of 716 type full lift type air cushion vehicle. Deutz air-cooled diesel engine and its host to high speed 3 imported, the total power of 950 kW, hull lengthened properly, instead of ducted propeller, the redesign of the lift, propulsion system and apron. From 1984 to 1985, the boat after repeated debugging, trial and the renovation and improvement of shafting and air propeller, the technical performance reached the practical requirements, the summer of 1988 was underway The islands of the South China Sea For training, the use of.
In 1983, the successful development of the 409 gas turbines, each Power 2205 kW, fueled with diesel, meeting the practical requirements. 708 of 722 prototype boats, the type 409 engine, design of coastal medium full cushion lift landing craft air cushion type 722-2. In order to improve the apron life, improve the seakeeping performance, the boat to low resistance response skirt; in order to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy hull structure, the newly developed by. The boat is equipped with 2 sets of 409 type gas turbine, coaxial branch driven fan and air ducted propeller. Gas turbine power plant Applied to the hovercraft, need to overcome such as machine, paddle joint control, air filter, exhaust ejector and the low load navigation key technology. Therefore, in alone Manufacturer Stand empty load test success after delivery, a variety of land-based joint and the specific conditions of hovercraft control simulation test, measurement and variable condition and machine, paddle joint control performance. In 1986, power plant on land the simulation test is successful, for shipment in 1987 1988, Dagu shipyard built; the landing craft air cushion and start trial; 1989, maritime and amphibious landing test succeeded, after delivery. This is an important symbol China hovercraft technology entered the practical stage.
(5) application of air cushion technology in other aspects
Progress in the application of the air cushion technology in other aspects of the new. 1981 Heilongjiang Province Transportation Research Institute and Research Institute of Shanghai science shipping co design 200 ton air cushion integrated barge, in low speed operation has certain effect of drag reduction, play an important role in energy-saving. Another example is the Shanghai ship building and repairing factory in the early 80's use of non automatic type air cushion platform will be the factory manufacturing low-speed heavy Marine diesel The machine shipped to the dock barge. As for the delivery of oil exploration, exploitation of the heavy equipment by beaches, swamps and wet area, 708 Institute designed speed self-propelled air cushion platform, weight 80 tons, 35 tons of payload, installed 2 light 12V180 diesel engine, rated power of each of 660 kW, 1985 by Hangzhou Dongfeng shipyard built and make use of Tianjin Dagang oilfield.
The working principle of hovercraft is the use of high-power fan to the hull bottom pressure, a lot of air, so that the formation of a lot of pressure between the ship bottom and surface
298 tons, loading capacity is 80 tons, can carry 4 pickup. Tank With 50 soldiers, and 2 medium tanks and 200 soldiers, or 3 vehicles Armored personnel transportation car Plus 100 soldiers. A maximum speed of 70 knots, the ship is 43.7 meters long, 17.08 meters wide, the main armament was two seat AK-630M antiaircraft artillery. "Their" class a total length of 57.6 meters, 25.6 meters wide, is said to be the world's largest air cushion ships, drainage capacity of 550 tons, loading capacity of 130 tons, can carry 3 main battle tanks (such as the T-80B tank), or 8 vehicles BMP-2 infantry chariot , or 10 BTR-70 armored personnel carriers and 230 soldiers. "Their" level speed of 60 knots, the main weapon for 2 AK-630 naval gun and a 2 seat retractable 122 mm rocket launcher, also can be provided with two mine track. The ship is designed with a bow and a stern ramp plate, used for Uninstall Quick landing of troops and materiel.
It is very obvious to introduce "superiority of the stork" and "their" level. In Taiwan as an example, the narrowest point only 130 km, that is to say as long as more than an hour will be able to swim across the channel. If the use of 10 ships "stork" air cushion landing ship, only a wave can carry about 20 vehicles with 96 or Type 98 main battle tank , or 1500 Marines arrived at the landing site. If "Jaeger" level, a wave can carry about 30 type 96 or Type 98 main battle tanks, or 3600 Marines, but also because of its fast speed, small volume, air defense firepower is not weak, in a similar The Taiwan Strait The high risk area, its survival capacity of natural is far higher than the 10000 ton class large amphibious landing ship. In the future in landing battle, "stork" and "skuas"
Commercial hovercraft will help you cannot enter by off-road vehicles or ships terrain to work:
· · · · snow beach marsh wetland, jet, beach, apron, ice
· · · · desert grassland mud flow Ling, highway, water
The picture on the right shows American "process" HG700 hovercraft in investigation work.