Oda Nobunaga In 1560, another name Igawa Yoshimoto to attack in 1560 May in Kyoto, but Battle of Okehazama Nobunaga defeated. He was the emperor's support, and placed his own candidate in the general succession struggle. The army withdrew, Nobunaga has control of the shogunate. In the Kyoto area, initial resistance from Buddhists, hostile daimyo and hostile The merchant . In order to get rid of the enemy encirclement, Nobunaga first in 1571 with secular forces defeated the militant Tiantai monk, and destroy their Rui Shan in the religious center than near Kyoto, also killed thousands of monks. In 1573, he defeated the local name, exile last Ashikaga shogun, created a history of the Azuchi Momoyama period. In this period, named after Nobunaga and Hideyoshi's castle. After these steps, Nobunaga in Pipa Lake Azuchi built seven storey, stone walls around the castle. The castle can withstand gun fight, become a symbol of the Warring States period. He was awarded the conquered name fief, clear duty free trade barriers, the derogation of religious groups and businessmen close to his military system, thus increasing their strength. He through large-scale war control about 1/3 of the province, the implementation of a series of administrative management system also set up and, for example, the system of village organization, measurement and standardization of tax. At the same time, other name had been Nobunaga conquered and beyond his control, also built a very strong castle of their own and to make their military modernization. In 1577, he sent his chief war, twelve provinces Hideyoshi to attack the West state. The war dragged on. In 1582, when he led the army to support Hideyoshi when by his generals, akechi mitsuhide rebelled killed. After the elimination of akechi mitsuhide, Hideyoshi became Nobunaga underage heirs (Oda Nobuhide, young three mage) one of the protector. In 1584, Hideyoshi killed Shibata Katsuya, forcing Oda Nobuko to Dutch act, and forced Oda Nobuo to surrender, in complete control of Kyoto, become Nobunaga undisputed heir. Ordinary people are not Hideyoshi surname, he was Fujiwara A filiate, given name Toyotomi, and obtained the The white Position. This means that all of Japan's internal affairs and military are his control. A year later, he kept the union of three of the nine main clans, and continue in Shikoku and Kyushu in the war. In 1590, Hideyoshi defeated 200000 troops deployed, this state control The Kanto region The last enemy. The rest of the name, The Warring States era of Japan The war is over. Hideyoshi dictatorial control of Japan, through direct means or vassal vows. The new central government system began operation. The country was a famous Union Unity, but still decentralized.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi is the most rise above the common herd Japan's Warring States Period Historical figures . Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi opened up in the great cause of reunification of Japan during the Momoyama Japan as the history of the most splendid era. In fifteenth Century, Japan experienced in the Muromachi shogunate reign Onin . The local Shugo daimyo In order to expand their Sphere of influence A war, the Muromachi shogunate central rule cease to exist except in name. In the national separatism in the war, many Shugo daimyo perished, and at the same time, there are many warriors become Name of the Warring States . By sixteenth Century, the situation intensified, liaoyuanzhishi. In the new name of the Warring States, and to Maori yuan And Saito Michimi Prominent. Mao Liyuan was attached to the rule of Japanese Chinese place The great prince large's warrior, low social status, but the strength Chaoqun, ambitions and. When the Ochi Yoshita By the retainers of Tao Qingxian rebel and murdered, Mao Liyuan seize the opportunity to send troops to attack than his own powerful Tao Qingxian. In the eradication of Tao Qingxian In the process, greatly expanded its sphere of influence, and control of almost the entire China place, become the overlord of Megatron the Japanese islands.
Saito Michimi formerly known as long well gauge show, is an oil dealer. The quick witted, with rare gifts and bold strategy. He served the Meinong country (now Gifu Prefecture ) name to protect the soil Qi's. The spring of 1542. Suddenly he raised an army mutiny, the expulsion of the master of the house soil Qi Lai Yi, since the lead Meinong's name of the Warring states.
The original name of the guardian, also there are many outstanding. A letter of area of Jia Feiguo (now Yamanashi Prefecture ) has been made by The Takeda clan Shi collar. Its name Takeda believed the tiger The eldest son of Takeda Xixuan raised an army expelled the father and replace sb. Subsequently, Takeda Xixuan conquests, dominated the Shinano, become Jia Fei Tiger. In addition, more of the Uesugi clan, the Kanto After Hojo Tokaido, the imagawa clan, Kyushu area of SHIMADZU's and Shikoku area of the Department's long case also has excellent performance.
In the end Zhang Guo (now Aichi ), in the middle of the sixteenth Century, there has been a great hero, he is always been criticism of the "Wei Zhang Da Oda Nobunaga.". In 1548, Oda Nobunaga succeeded his father as ODA master. At this time, his influence is very small, no one will care about him. But. Meinong's name Saito Michimi has unique insight, it will conclude that. In 1556, he gave his daughter Saito belonged to a butterfly Married Nobunaga, and to bring the Meinong's dowry. His son Saito Yoshiryo resented, murdered his father, to become the master of the house, and he is the enemy.
The spring of 1560, control of the Suruga, yuan jiang, Three rivers The great prince Igawa Yoshimoto after adequate preparation, concentration of a large number of troops to Owari province adjacent to wage a war, and be a trend which cannot be halted Dilianke tail number city, soldiers Guoju Cheongju City game Zhang City (now The city of Nagoya ), attempted to open the channel into the kyoto. At that time, Oda Nobunagasena, died only a momentary thing, even his ministry will also think the powerless. However, a miracle happened in the hands of Oda Nobunaga. Late on the night of May 17th, Oda Nobunaga riding rate hundreds of bodyguard rain process is barrel HAZAMA rest to Igawa Yoshimoto army, beheaded Wu Yong Without that Igawa Yoshimoto's head. The Ministry quickly rushed to help Nobunaga, overnight, 3000 person of Nobunaga army wiped out all the 25000 people who now Sichuan army. " Barrel HAZAMA battle "Rewriting the history of Japan, it put Oda Nobunaga into the historical stage.
1562. Imagawa ujizane ( Igawa Yoshimoto Heir) will be Matsuhira Yuankang (Leyasu Tokugawa) by the imagawa clan barrel HAZAMA campaign failed on occasion, in Three rivers of China Okazaki Ki (now the county magistrate independent love), and then destroy the imagawa clan. Oda Nobunaga allied with Leyasu Tokugawa against Takeda Xixuan J., life extension, began Meinong's Northern Expedition, for father revenge journey.
"Ink Minamata fortification" is a strategic event Oda Nobunaga began to develop from the tail piece. This event is the protagonist of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi formerly known as Kinoshita Toshiro, was born in February 4, 1536 in a poor country Cun Wei Zhang Peasant family . Because of his body very thin, very humble origin, people scornfully referred to him as "the monkey". Childhood, Toshi Ro to Suruga Igawa Yoshimoto retainers Panasonic's gang home as a servant. In 1555, Toshi Ro of 19 years old acquaintance, back to the tail to the ODA family servants in. Because he keep faithful and true and smart and capable, get Oda Nobunaga particularly loved, to obtain the title of the samurai, the ODA retainers, become small infantry head Oda Nobunaga account.
Toshi Ro became Oda Nobunagaienchen despite the elephant Shibata Katsuya The senior warriors continuous heckle, bullying and exclusion, but. Owing to his outstanding wisdom and ability, doing a lot of home work, achievement is outstanding, began to receive attention. Can say, the growing strength of the Oda Nobunagayuko and Toshi Ro effects are inseparable.
In 1563, after a long period of preparation, he determined to take Saito Michimi Giving dowry Meinong country. But, Saito Ryuki (Saito Yoshiryo's son) is powerful. As an important part of the vegetarian thenard's combat system, the establishment of a strategic stronghold in the hub of sunomata Owari and Lennon border, it is necessary to. However, sunomata scarcity, is easy to attack difficult to defend, vulnerable to Zhai thenard's attack, is simply not possible to delay for a long time the city where you can say. Oda Nobunaga put forward the plan, was firmly against all retainers than To Yoshiro's. But, he argued, opinionated, has appointed his most trusted retainer Shibata Katsukawa Sakuma letter Sheng The execution of this task. However, because the armed harassment Zhai thenard's, two times successively fortification action failed. Kinoshita Toshiro in this case, step forward bravely, apply and start executing fortification.
Toshi Ro sums up two times before the fortification of the lessons of failure, that is extremely difficult in defensive situations, time is the decisive factor. He asked both intelligent and courageous. Ronin Bee must Zhengsheng when armed defense secretary in the fortification. All his ex situ processing good fortification fortification of the material, by the flood of money, will fortify materials to sunomata, overnight in situ assembly. Due to the well planned, and effective measures, the fortification of miracle only a night time to complete the.
"Ink Minamata night city" the first comprehensive display of Kinoshita Toshiro's courage and Superman planning organization. Since then, the monkey is very trust Oda Nobunaga. In 1568, after Oda Nobuhatoritokumi's country Matsunaga Kuxiu From the Muromachi shogunate general Ashikaga Yoshiaki back to Kyoto in the central government. Then, he will be the younger sister married to North Valley. Near the river country Name Azai nagamasa . North near the river country covering a large area on the northern shore of Lake Biwa, south of Kyoto, west of Dan, North brief Echizen, is an extremely important strategic position area. Oda Nobunaga's marriage and shallow wells, the purpose is to let Asakai Hajun help himself to hold the territory of the northern region, promote the near river area I can concentrate superior forces to large areas of the South Bank of the South Lake Biwa, realize the strategic target of control the Kinki region.
From 1568 to 1570, Oda Nobunaga with the help of Asakai Hajun, captured the six angle Yin Yi ruled south near river area and Kitada Kunori Rule of the ISE area, and weakened the control of Kinki region Miyoshi yoshitsugu Power. Territory area and its volume ranking first among Japanese name.
The rapid expansion of power by Oda Nobunaga, general Ashikaga Yoshiaki and the Kinki region of Hanoi, Izumi, Settsu, mountain, Large and The name of the fear. The spring of 1571, general Ashikaga Yoshiaki to the shogunate name, mustered asakura, Miyoshi Takeda, Chinese fir, countries such as name and were always religious leaders as significant source temple to Oda Nobunaga encirclement attack, Oda Nobunaga in danger be besieged on all sides.
Oda Nobunaga in this case, Asakai Hajun, invited to, his whole army attacked the country directly, destroy ASAKURA yoshikage General Kai Ashikagayoshiaki, a ring of encirclement. The summer of 1571, Oda Nobunaga's army is the gold Qicheng and Asakura Yoshijing fight, Asakai Hajun suddenly and Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Asakura Yoshijing secretly signed the covenant, and with a large number of troops to attack defenseless Oda Nobunaga rear position. At the time, Oda Nobunaga's army soon falls into the thirty thousand enemy troops surrounded. In order to preserve the mastermind with painstaking effort accumulated out force, Oda Nobunaga decisively ordered the retreat. In this time of crisis, a humble Kinoshita Toshiro decided to step forward bravely, led hundreds of soldiers to bring up the rear, cover the main forces to retreat.
Fight with hundreds of small unit and a few times their own enemy, is in the court defeat by fighting against overwhelming odds. Toshi Ro used a lot of strategy and the enemy at, for the main troops Meinong time.
The name Leyasu Tokugawa learned that Oda Nobunaga was in the news, immediately came to support. Toshi Ro completed the task after Ieyasu together cover, and routed the azai nagamasa, led the archers security withdrawal of gifu.
Oda Nobunaga in the Jin Qi retreat, made a short break, began to conquer the north near river area of war, after two years of the war, in 1573 wiped out Asakai Hajun, direct control of the whole Lake Biwa area. The same year, Oda Nobunaga into exile in Kyoto, Ashikaga Yoshiaki, officially ending the Muromachi shogunate regime in Japan for more than two hundred and thirty years of rule, to grasp the central regime. Major territory where the development of commodity economy in the Warring States period, businessmen, farmers growing economic strength, but the feudal separatism, split melee not only undermine the agricultural production, aggravating farmer burden, and because the countries levels with, currency and amount of business is not unified, blocking the flow of goods. So the farmers, businessmen are against separatism, eager to unity. A feudal lord in the face of peasant uprising and the public struggle, also tried to concentrate, discriminate against those who hold different views, the establishment of a national central regime.
By the middle of the sixteenth Century ad, have the ambition and the strength of the name of the Warring States, the Northeast has Hojo, Uesugi clan, The middle place Takeda, ASAKURA Zhu s, China (shanyin, Shanyang Two) the local Maori's, four countries have long had I Department, but in fact the initiative is a small name, Wei Zhang (Aichi) Oda Nobunaga. Wei Zhang Located in the agricultural advanced nobi plain ( Nagoya Area), the old forces weak, small the Yeomanry developed. Oda Nobunaga a substantial economic strength, a strengthen political and military power, implementation" Army and farming separation "Policy, general domestic Principal, warrior in his retainer group, composed of a use pike, equipped with rifles standing army. He took the yuanjiaojingong crush one by one, strategy. Paul and 3 years (1560 AD) in the barrel HAZAMA Owari (now AichiFeng Ming Southwest of the city) to attack 10 times the enemy guard troops routed name Igawa Yoshimoto. To consolidate the rear, Nobunaga the imagawa territory to Sanhe country (Aichi Prefecture in Southern Song Ping Kang (name) Leyasu Tokugawa , then destroy the obstacles he occupied in Kyoto Mino (Gifu Prefecture). Saito Ryuki Zhu Qi, Fucheng, become the field of woven Jun zhen. Paul and 11 years (AD 1568) lost power in the Muromachi shogunate and the emperor asked Nobunaga's Kyoto, recovery the Bakufu position. He will take over the base and Yoshiaki as Shogun On behalf of the Ministry, rate of Beijing, mastered the regime.
Paul and 12 years (AD 1569 years), Zhitian force free city circle yield. At this time, the agriculture developed Kinki areas And the community, kyoto, Nara And other wealthy city are in his hands. His rifle team is a peerless giants, Yuan turtle 2 years (AD 1571) destroyed the fortress of conservative forces hieizan enryaku Ji; two years later forced the discontent in position and some famous puppet to unite against the ODA Ashikaga Yoshiaki surrender, the military strike, Muromachi shogunate Perish.
There are two basic reasons for ODA victory: the first is to recognize from the parasitic landlord self farming smallholder land rent of existence, so the ODA forces have the ability to leave the base long-term political struggle to conquer. The second is the rich local guinea near. Also included with rifles, artillery and other weapons, ensure military victory. In addition, ODA to The Warring States The main social contradiction movement and self -- since it broke the feudal strengthen feudal lords movement, later winning form to solve.
Woven field in the unified process brutal repression were always in the peasant uprising. From 1571 to 1574 he suppressed the ISE Long Island And more before the uprising, killing tens of thousands of people. It was 8 years (AD 1580) capture Osaka The wish of the temple, and sent to the Department of Shibata Katsuya (1530 - 1583) to extinguish the Kaga uprising, meanwhile, continue to work with the famous battle. It was 3 years (AD 1575) he combined with pine flat Ieyasu, at nagashino (Sanhe territory -- the strongest rout of central Japan name Takeda Katsuyori In the army, a total of Put down The 26 country. It was 4 years (AD 1576) in Pipa Lake near Jiang An Soil construction Azuchi According to the rule, as. It was in November 10 years (AD 1582), the national reunification has point the day and await for it, but in June 2nd of that year, he in Kyoto Instinct Temple By men Akechi mitsuhide The attack, was forced to set themselves on fire. He died, unified business department Hashiba Xiuyoshi (1536 - 1598) the inheritance. Hideyoshi's tail (now the county magistrate Zhang Guo love) a farmers son, was serving Oda Nobunaga, outstanding ability. It was the first year (1573 AD) by repeated military exploits, was promoted to the name, and Shibata Katsuya, mitsuhide as Nobunaga's Deli department. It was 10 years (AD 1582) Temple instinct of change, he is Preparation China (this Okayama county) with Mao Lihuiyuan (1553 - 1625) combat, after hearing the news that Tong Hui Yuan peace, returned to kyoto. Yamazaki (Hyogo Prefecture, southwest) battle defeated mitsuhide, light show in the near river road middle peasants had attacked Dutch act from Nobunaga, died 11 days. It was 11 years (AD 1583), Hideyoshi successive cut off the alien, first launched in the river Battle of shizugatake Destroy the ODA retainers, Shibata Katsuya. And from this year the construction of the Osaka city (now The city of Osaka )), forced major leave the territory, together with the circle city businessman be migrated here, will dominate the Osaka as their own according to the. The year 1584 beat Oda Nobuo and forcing the letter of alliance -- had control the Tokaido, Jiafei and Shinano province of Tokugawa Ieyasunchenhato. The ODA succession war ended, because the three mages Hideyoshi crowned the (ODA Xiuxin) was just three years old children, do not have the ability to manage Nobunaga Nobunaga established hegemony, hegemony has also been Hashiba Xiuyoshi usurped. The same year, Hideyoshi to Shikoku, forced to name of the Warring States My dear, long Zong Yuan Surrender to all. It was 13 years (AD 1585), Hideyoshi conquered the last bastion of conservative forces Wakayama County The Koyasan (according to the Buddhist temple of the Shingon) and Kii root. The same year, forcing the court to give white. The year 1586 was Taizheng minister, more affected by Emperor surname "toyotomi". It was 15 years (AD 1587) invasion of Kyushu, name Matsu Yoshiku Surrender. This year, Hideyoshi Kyoto built in grand rich Guan Qiu Jule article, enclosed by a moat, like a palace. It was 16 years (AD 1588) he here with After Yang Cheng Emperor Oda Nobunagajikonobuo, Leyasu Tokugawa, Zhao performed together to Emperor of Japan Swear allegiance scene. It was 18 years (AD 1590) Hideyoshi to crusade against the Hojo clan, Kanto, surrounded by Little Tian Yuancheng The northeast, Date Masamune Surrender, then north Pingding, Ohu place. So far the national unified. Wenlu In 2 years (AD 1593) he has made the Warring States era (Patinopecten area Hokkaido The southern pine) before's submission, Hokkaido The southern area He officially incorporated into Japanese territory.
Azuchi Oda Nobunaga in the unified process, in order to improve the power of the Ashikaga shogun, first, then use Emperor of Japan Authority. Toyotomi Hideyoshi because of his small number of the original join the retainer retainers, team in unified process is mostly the past colleagues and predecessors name, coupled with the power of time is too short, so do not create your own office, has not made the rank, but to the "white" name on the name, king.
Toyotomi regime The central mechanism In five: white under "pursues", performed by the government, Qian Tian Xuan to , Asano long. (1547 - 1611), Mashita Nagamori Three, stone into, Nagatsuka masaie As, this 5 people are hand cultivated confidant Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The other 5 appointed the strength of the famous five "old", as an adviser to his policies, no doubt this is a Huairou Methods. Five always Leyasu Tokugawa , Maeda toshiie , Yukita Suke Yuan, Mao Lihui, Kobayakawa takakage Then, little Hayakawa Takashijing Uesugi Keikatsu .
In order to strengthen Centralization Toyotomi Hideyoshi, (and and and released from a better and strict control of the name). His family and his courtiers placed in important areas, such as the adopted son show times placed in Owari Cheongju, brother show long housed in large and Koriyama, Ishida Minari placed in the near river, Sawa Yama and so on, thus the Kinki regional consolidated. At the same time, the unreliable name out of the original territory, such as the original in The East China Sea. With large forces Leyasu Tokugawa to the Kanto area, in order to prevent their original territory independent division name. As the tight control of name of the way, he also ordered the name let their wives permanent Kyoto, Osaka and Fushimi, as a hostage, and between the name without approval, shall not marry. The concentration of land in the hands, as a part of the duchy, and most of the land is conferred the name, called knowledge ((a), was the ruler of knowledge's privilege. How had the land is represented by the stone to the rice production. It was 17 years (AD 1589) of the national rice production for the 15800000 stone (IKI, except for the horse). The Toyotomi municipality directly under the central government for the 46 country, rice 2000000 stone, accounted for 1/9 of total output, conferment of major territory accounted for 8/9 of total output, one of the biggest names in Tokchon's leading real estate rice about 2500000 stone, Uesugi clan and Maori's 1000000 stone. In the land with hand Toyotomi is not dominant, but he also directly under the central government circles, Kyoto, Osaka, Hakata As the most developed commercial city and trading port, also control Sado Such as gold, silver, wild, so his economic strength is far better than the name.
With the establishment of knowledge and the name of a nationwide "the people" (farmers), small-scale peasant economy now, Japan has formed Marx The "pure feudal land possession and developed the small peasant economy". This single marriage small family of small business than the composite family, home of slavery management body is much better, improve the manufacturing enthusiasm of the farmer. Toyotomi regime of the small-scale peasant economy of the first to admit.
The small-scale peasant economy is the implementation of land policies and Hideyoshi inseparable. Oda Nobunaga died soon after Hideyoshi began to implement "too Quarantine", Wen Lu 3 years (AD 1594) to formally set the national unified land system: the past is not unified in a length of 6 feet 3 inches, 960 steps back to 300 steps a counter. The field is divided into,,, four, the standard output stone number, namely Ueda as the 1.5 stone, Momoka is 1.3 stone, 1.1 stone field, under the field separately; in the standard lift "Beijing" rise "unified various regions are not the same old rise. To the number of stone standard output of 2/3 charge annual tribute. To implement the "one to one" principle. The above is "the main content of our inspection". Toyotomi Hideyoshi to check the implementation of very firmly, to place" Zhu Yinzhuang "(covered with a red general seal license) clearly indicates: whether the duke. The local people, who dare to resist inspection, kill them all, even the whole country or two Xiang also when so.
In the separation system in the examination is to organize the army corps farming for a purpose Land reform At the same time, is also the fundamental negative ancient feudal namely ability (hereditary private collar) a big business system. Because the power is the most intense form of land private ownership, which following the inspection is your abilities to the public, to Lord home according to the national territory, will be concentrated in the hands of Hideyoshi, even old retainer's knowledge to belong to Hideyoshi gave "well".
In the examination at the same time, it was 16 years (AD 1588) Toyotomi Hideyoshi excuse casting Buddha with nail saw a knife, "orders", the confiscation of folk all "sword, broadsword, spear, bow and arrow, rifles and other weapons". Ordered after January, only in the He Jiang Zhao county confiscated long 1013, broadsword, spear 1540 to 160. A hunting knife is afraid of farmers "have unnecessary weapons, once difficult to accept annual tribute, is bound to revolt." At the same time, also to make the examination smoothly, and achieve the "army and farming separation" objective through it. It was 19 years (AD 1591) August Toyotomi's "Control orders" issued identity, further defined the "army and farming separation" to establish the identity of the policy. This is the prohibition of peasants into warrior, compulsory cultivation, even changed the name territory, farmers also shall not leave the original village, the farmers tied to the land. Also provides hand industry and businessmen should not change the occupation. On the contrary, the samurai loses indigenous, must follow the LORD your mobile, concentrated in the big city, become the repressive military occupation. So, in order to (Wu) for the ruling class, agriculture, industry, business for the ruling class of the "four people" feudal hierarchy was established. Fabric, Feng power centralization and unification policy, in the industrial field have distinct reflection. In order to promote the business development and the city prosperity, Oda Nobunaga had stipulated the "Music City", "Le" system. This is the name of the Warring States have adopted policies to promote, ODA, in building etc., Gifu So, Azuchi Castle Town, the provisions formulated the castle town Ordinance must be added to the. It was 5 years (AD 1577) in June, he is the Azuchi Machi formulated "Le Le seat to" 13.
The basic content that is negative "seat" privilege, reward the merchant to the settlement, exempt from civil engineering corvee burden, to eliminate the "benevolent" uneasiness, guarantee the security of housing, exempt from tax and so on. Toyotomi Hideyoshi also inherited the policy, as it was 13 years (1585 AD) on the base ordered the abolition of Kyoto Humpback Grading exploitation rights, in 1587 ordered the abolition of nara, And County mountain Part of the seat, in 1591 ordered the repeal of the seat of Kyoto, Nara organization as general principles.
But music, music block does not mean completely free trade, politically speaking, the implementation of this policy objective is to liberate the business industry from membership Temple agency, Lord of the manor, so that in the textile field, Toyotomi under control, to ensure that commercial interests, strengthen its power. For example, Toyotomi building Osaka The city was forced to part of a circle and the Beijing urban people moved to Osaka. Many city into Toyotomi's crown, does not recognize the city autonomy, autonomous organization, human being is replace sb. ruled the city authorities.
A part of the traffic policy and monetary policy is also the ODA, Toyotomi developers industrial policy. Woven field in Yonglu 11 years (AD 1568) withdraw its forces within the scope of the checkpoint ("off"), no sign "money". This is to combat the level set Si agency and manor forces, and to facilitate the businessmen of free trade, the developer of industrial. Toyotomi following this policy, this year 1586, the abolition of the national level. Woven field as part of a reorganization of traffic facilities, repair roads, bridges, Toyotomi were unified in 1 of 36 town. Stable currency is the developer of premises must, Nobunaga Yu Yonglu 12 years (AD 1569) published the "alternative" money makes provisions, "good money" (good money), "bad money" (coin) exchange rate changes, Hideyoshi cast unified currency, while the development of stone, Sano The wild, such as gold and silver deposit. For the development of overseas trade, Hideyoshi on day 16 years (AD 1588) issued a "ban" the pirate. The first year (AD 1592), to implement the "Shuinsen trade", awarded Nagasaki, Kyoto businessman Zhu Yinzhuang (shogunate Charter), in order to protect. A uniform Weights and measures For some, its provisions are still in use.
Fushimi peach mountain Toyotomi Hideyoshi Catholic policy to strengthen the centralization as the theme. Oda Nobunaga is the Catholic Church were always against peasant uprisings and gain the benefits of trade protection policy, take once on the Catholic church. Hideyoshi was initially adopted the same policy, but it was 15 years (AD 1587) he saw foreign priests on Kyushu, part name strongly influenced and Nagasaki became the church lands in the conquest of Kyushu, surprised, fear of endangering their own rule. Especially fear of Catholicism spread among farmers would always intifada consequences, so immediately Nagasaki received as a municipality directly under the central government, no Catholic missionary, the expulsion of foreign missionaries abroad. Although he banished missionaries, but then admits that the people of the Catholic faith, allowing the Portuguese trade. When the Qing long the first year (1596 AD), a Spanish boat drifted into the Tosa Coast, show Jicha all western countries by preaching Japanese aggression ambition, the missionaries and the Japanese 26 believers in Nagasaki. This is the beginning of Japanese repression catholic.
This policy is also using the so-called "Hideyoshi kingdom" thought to incite people xenophobia, he claims, Japan's land and all things are created, growth and protection of god. It was 17 years (AD 1587) of the Catholic Ban said, "Japan is the kingdom of God, no Catholic countries spread the cult", "Catholic countries people for his disciples to Japanese shrine, destroy Buddha Pavilion, which is unheard of". In 1591, Hideyoshi wrote to Portugal. East India The governor said: "China is the kingdom of God, God is the origin of the universe."
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi after a series of wars of conquest, the end The fragmented The Warring States chaotic situation, realize the unity of the nation, destroy the manorial system, these. The Japanese economy Cultural development plays a great role. As a historical figure, they are to suppress the murderer, but also can yet be regarded as a feudal Military strategist And politicians.
Culture during the reign of Oda Nobugawatoyonchenxiuyoshi is known as a "Azuchi Momoyama culture, cultural history," in this era is called "Azuchi Momoyama period," (1573 - 1603). Ann soil in this Shiga In 1576 ad, ODA times long established the city. Momoyama Kyoto Fushimi District in southern suburbs, the second half of the sixteenth Century Toyotomi Hideyoshi in power for about 20 years, because there is more than a peach, so it is called the momoyama. Cultural characteristics of this era is the Buddhist influence, secular and reality highlights.
Architecture. The former Temple shrine is the new feudal lord of the city Guo Temple Museum instead. In the model, structure symmetrical except shrines, temples, are excluded, but the labyrinth structure asymmetric. The representative buildings of Azuchi Nobunaga, Hideyoshi's jurakudai, Osaka City, Fushimi castle and Ji Lucheng Etc.. Azuchi is yuan turtle 4 years (1576 AD) built in the near river, which is now the east coast of Lake Biwa, building large scale, the city has 7 layers. Donjon (tower), each layer of the room and pillar have been destroyed by the gold decoration, at the foot of the mountain, only the total to see the temple kept. Jurakudai is Hideyoshi in Kyoto Hotel, built in 1587 ad, but in 1595 was completely destroyed, most building moved to Fushimi castle, of the existing Dade Temple Tang door, West would Feiyun Pavilion temple. Osaka city in Osaka City East Area Machangding, built in 1583 ad, about 12 kilometers around, with high walls and deep down, expansion of scale. Fushimi castle in Kyoto Fushimi District Dong Fu see the mountains, built in 1594 ad, after being destroyed part of the construction of the Edo shogunate, moved to Dade temple, Nishimoto Te. The castle was a military fortress, is the feudal lord of the house and hall. The Academy style mansion called "living museum", luxurious interior decoration, partition and walls are painted with beautiful decoration. painting. With the popular tea, tea (number to send the house building also developed). Tearoom building with simple, quiet, Xia Xiaowei, generally take nature as background, inlaid in nature, embodies the silent plain tea spirit.
Painting. Painting secular this period is very strong, the subject has no Buddhism, depicted the flower Ukraine, natural scenery and social customs, the painter concern for life. But also can be seen, many are not ordinary flowers black beast painting, painting mostly is the symbol of auspicious sign and king. For example, the "Lion King" Tang screen display of authority. The front and the Donjon upper generally painted Chinese ancient sages like. The custom picture is also very popular, it said the class gradually, and occupied the field of culture. The Buddhism recession, Confucianism Rise, so the Confucianism as the theme of the painting has become the mainstream of this era. In the form, "and the Han fusion" ink painting, the painting No Masanobu The founding of Kano school. In order to Tosa Hikarunobu As the founder of the Tosa school mainly painting and drawing, but has lost The era of peace As big and painted pure, ink painting tone aggravating, there is the trend by Kano school influence. Momoyama era Kano school painter: Souya Yongde Hunting, hunting wild, wild music snow. In addition, Momoyama era's greatest painters Kyohko Hasegawa Beth .
The drama. With the growth of the people in the town, city rise people's theatre. As mentioned above, rap "If the pill And net glass Ji story ancient net glass appeared early in the Muromachi period, the puppet show with the development. In addition, as a unique form of Japanese drama, still maintains the life of Kabuki, is this era Izumo () a priestess Okuni founding.
With this time warrior, Ting people living close tea is very popular. In the Muromachi period tea advocate from the Ming Zen monks, spread in the samurai, ceremony overloaded with details, genre, out. To the world, which set the merchants, out of form, the attention to the spirit of development (and Qing Ji Jing, tea zen blindly) "Tuo tea" taste.
Schematic diagram of Asahi war As a military feudal lords leader Toyotomi Hideyoshi not satisfied for the Japanese people's rule, then want to force North Korea (AD 1589), Philippines (1591 AD), (China) Taiwan (1593 AD) Ryukyu Come to pay tribute, dream rule Chinese continent And North korea. He is trying to invade Korea not tame feudal name to foreign countries, to maintain their rule, the suppression of the people. At the same time in order to meet the desire of privileged businessmen, adapt to the plundering of the primitive accumulation of capital.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of Chinese and North Korea's ambitions have already, and the first to open it in the day of 13 years (AD 1585). It was 18 years (AD 1590) winter he to the Korean king, declared that he would "march into the Daming country, easy Wu dynasties customs in more than 400 States, the imperial government in billions of years", a North Korean invasion of surrender, as Chinese Daring vanguard . The two countries enjoy a traditional friendship, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's unreasonable demands, behoove is the North refused. It was 19 years (AD 1591) he will rise to his position Toyotomi Hidetsugu , claim" Our "This camp, Kyushu Hizen seaside Nagoya [note 15], ready for aggression. The first year (AD 1592), March, ukita show sent for the invading army commander, field Hao merchants origin Konishi yukinaga (? - 1600), Kato Shima As the pioneer, send nearly 160000 army crossed the sea battle, in Busan Landing, also sent nine ghost jialong, Vine hall Gao Hu 9000 Navy Command of the North Korean attack around the coast.
After a long civil war, the Japanese feudal daimyo had accumulated a wealth of operational experience, and with military rifles, strong, so the Japanese fighting force. On the contrary, the Korean Lee was weak, the king Li (rigong) is a person cannot be irresolute and hesitant, organize forces for effective resistance. The Japanese army occupied the city, Kaesong, Pyongyang three city within two months. To July, Kato Shima troops arrived in Tumen River in huining. Li (rigong) repeatedly retreat, fled to the town. Toyotomi Hideyoshi was the first dizzy with success in May, captured the capital after they clamored to move the capital to Beijing, from The emperor of Japan Rule China around Beijing, the 10 "country" to offer as a queen, Duke to give salary, thanks to its subordinate to 10 times the original territory, even life Toyotomi Hidetsugu Datang (China) white, white by Hashiba Hideki or Japanese Yukita Suke As, North Korea is give Hashiba Hidekatsu Or ukita show rule, very arrogant.
Yi The Japanese army although a succeed, but since May the navy in the south of the Peninsula coastal waters but was for the outstanding patriotic admirals Yi A heavy blow to the turtle ship fleet command for the main North Korean navy, especially in July 8th Hansando The battle of Qianhai, a large fleet Japan almost all destroyed. Since then The Japanese Navy Complete loss of sea, land and sea to seize the aggressors original Sinuiju attempt was forced to lose.
The invading army in the North Korean people commit innumerable murders, aroused the indignation, the localities have spontaneous Yang weave armed "Yi Bing" team, heroic struggle against the enemy. Guo Zaiyou, Zheng Renhong forces active in the Gyeongsang right lane, Zhao Xian forces active in the Chungcheong, Gao Jingming forces active in the Jeolla, gold stem constriction forces active in the central region. All militias fighting capacity increasing, not only to defend the homeland, and the way to liberation, widely to other way out, a lot of destroying the enemy.
The government's request, the Ming Dynasty sent aid army since July has arrived in North Korea, into the battle. But the first batch of 5000 reinforcements in July on the offensive The battle of Pyongyang As deputy commander Zu Chengxun The enemy lost, Pioneer Shi Ru The battle, lose to teach. At the end of 12, management Song Yingchang And admirals Li Rusong suobu second batch of 40000 troops in Korea, and in 1593 1 month to start The battle of Pyongyang Here, to occupy the small West Long troops fierce attack, the army "pit one against ten, all" by a day and night battle, the recovery of Pyongyang, then the open city. Konishi yukinaga troops retreated to the capital, Kato Shima troops withdraw from the north. In late January, Li Rusong was to meet the advance, because of false information to mislead, Jun Bi foot Museum (30 miles north of Beijing) enemy ambush, fighting all day, back in the city. But since then Li Bu It can successfully cut off the enemy Long Shan Xiang Dao, burning the barn millet. The battle of Pyongyang was a turning point in the Japanese from the failure to win the. Toyotomi Hideyoshi started this unjust war can not enjoy popular support in the army. Portugal Louis, Flor Lis (1532 - 1597) on him in North Kyushu what one sees and hears the situation when he said: people hated for men, that is tantamount to die. Women cry, because they feel forced to widowhood. Restless and sigh with national. A prophecy also spread, said Hideyoshi conquest will fail, Japan will set off a rebellion. Opposition to the war more than the North Kyushu resident, in the ancient capital of nara, Kofukuji Tamon Institute learned monks handsome war mobilization has already begun, it is expected that this war won't have good results. When the invading army was ravaged North Korean territory, in his diary he said to the Korean people "infinite compassion". The farmers refused to accept the commissariat, opposed the war of aggression. Chang Lu (Kanto Ibaraki Prefecture ) farmers refused to accept the rations, trying to cross the country name Satake Yoshinobu The army is "hang by a thread" state. In the army, officers and soldiers, in turn a lot of escape and mutiny. A data record, the pan Island fled back to the troops from the front 57, these are the main combat soldiers, "Porter is not included". When the soldiers fled so serious, so that Toyotomi Hideyoshi had to in order to set up the arrest fugitives around the Sentry ("people time to remain"). The war of aggression launched less than 3 months, gathering in Hizen Hirado SHIMADZU forces in the north, with plum and led 700 soldiers refused to fight across the sea and held a mutiny.
After the defeat of Pyongyang, the Japanese War anti war sentiment filled. In the nursing house the camp of the plume front name the Polish righteous preaching in the home letter: "the Japanese wanted to escape from the capital, all think so: when the monk or, as long as it can leave a life. I also hope, can return to the motherland aromatic land in alive, even to drink a cup of water or home."
At that time, the gas is not only so, also be troop casualties more than half ( Inside and outside the city Only 53000 people) ", grain lines are scarce, plague, the Japanese command that capital be withdrawn in April 18th, Beijing south to escape, retreat to the southeast coastal area. The army into the city and shunt pursuit, recover the Han River south of more than 1000 years, most of the land came to korea.
Ming, the peace negotiation between already. In June 1 in the nursing house Toyotomi Hideyoshi also to overcome by itself, the Ming Dynasty to the princess to marry the emperor of Japan: the resumption of bilateral trade, to occupy North Korea's four road and Beijing, North Korea prince to Japanese hostage, North Korea not anti Japanese and other 7 unreasonable conditions. The negotiations. Shen Weijing This is a traitor and rogue, on the same day the small West such as collusion, the 7 terms of Toyotomi Hideyoshi did not mention a word back to Beijing, said that anti Toyotomi submissive, "pleaded with". The Wanli emperor for gospel truth, in an attempt to satisfy the vanity of Toyotomi Hideyoshi way to make him "to fix the post chen". The year 1596 was sent to Osaka and Japan, Futoyo Chenxiuyoshi king, Toyotomi bate, and rupture, resumption of fighting. Qing long 2 years (AD 1597) in January, Toyotomi Hideyoshi troops landed in Busan North made 140000 complex. The invading army from the start, low morale, arrived near the capital after 8 months. But soon proved to be Ma suobu beat, withdraw to the southern coastal narrow zone, a. The next fall, Toyotomi Hideyoshi died, the Japanese began to retreat. In November, the Japanese Navy by the joint North Korean Navy interception, in the peninsula of southeast beam sea loss of weight, fled to shore also suffered a devastating blow, die million people. In the Ming. The Navy Chen Lin and his 70 year old veteran, Deng Zilong "Emotional", Li "," the way to fight against the "boat fire, unfortunately, heroic sacrifice. The North Korean navy commander Li Shunchen to rescue Zi Long, also at the expense of shot. By the end of the year before, the Japanese army gradually withdraw japan. Oda Nobunaga in Cheongju (now the Nagoya region of Japan) carried out military reform, implementation of the "militia separation" policy, is still in agriculture in Japan has a long-term stability of the military forces, and military strength rapidly stronger. At the same time the Meinong area Saito Home (ODA period, during the Oda Nobunaga administration, Saito and ODA is in laws, namely the alliance) declined, "Sanlao" in Saito and bamboo Hanbee have betrayed Saito to take refuge in the ODA, Oda Nobunaga started to Saito's war, occupied the city in our home the Inaba mountain town . After the expansion, the new town named "Oda Nobunaga" (from King Wen of Zhou in Gifu Qishan (Feng Ming Qishan) and Confucius Township Qufu Yi). At the same time Oda Nobunaga Claims that "the world Bukavu, show that the force of unity determination. After that, he also took positive dear Ting Emperor of Japan And the Ashikaga Shogun asked him to help restore them in Wei Zhang When the territory and power, the legal status of national unity. 1568 September, Oda Nobunaga Occupy Kyoto, Fu Li Ashikaga Yoshiaki In general, and control of the emperor, Have a firm hold over the emperor to oppress the princes He unified the whole country, accelerate the pace of.
After these steps, he through large-scale war control about 1/3 of the japanese.
In 1577, Oda Nobunaga sent his chief General Hashiba Xiuyoshi (formerly known as Kinoshita Toshiro, because of its Stepfather Name and surname wood with wood. Later joined the ODA, appreciate the ODA home minister Tanba Longxiu And Shibata Katsuya's talent, in Oda Nobunaga under surname Yu chai. After dominating the Japanese emperor, surname Feng Chen, it is after) to attack the West Honshu Island (then known as the China area) of twelve country. This field and ukita family home, Maori (here refers to large Maori family, home, home, Yoshikawa is the Maori small early Kawa Mi strength integration) war quite close, Hashiba Xiuyoshi frequently for help. In 1582, when he led the army to support when Hideyoshi temporary instinct temple, was his generals Akechi mitsuhide Heavily sent round to kill, i.e. Change of the instinct Temple (the coup to Oda Nobunaga, Oda Nobutada Both were killed, caused a power vacuum ODA family). Killed akechi mitsuhide (after mitsuhide wise while on the run from the villagers hands rough), the heir, Hashiba Xiuyoshi and Shibata Katsuya Cheongju Conference The falling out, both sides fought a fierce battle in the near river area (known in history" Base Yue battles "), after the defeat of Shibata Katsuya in the north of the city, in the Zhuang Dutch act. Hashiba Xiuyoshi became Nobunaga underage heirs ( Oda Hidenobu Oda Nobunagako Oda Nobutada, the eldest son of the protector).
The distribution of strength of territory again become the standard. As the measurement and evaluation of new land units, stone was set up. 1 stone roughly equivalent to 180 liters. Rice . Have those who produce ten thousand stone or more rice land, is defined as the name. The Japanese national examination to 18500000 stone (1598 data), and Hideyoshi a person has one of the 2000000 stone. Tokchon His powerful in the state name (not entirely by Hideyoshi's control) holds 2500000 stone. Though Hideyoshi powerful force and fear that Ieyasu have strength, Leyasu Tokugawa's position is absolutely safe. Hideyoshi tried to weaken the name of the interests, for example by Tokchon management the Kanto region, and trustworthy vassal surrounded by his new territory. In the city of Osaka Town, he will be the name of the wife and heirs as hostages, and marriage alliance strengthen feudal constraint. He used the stone system and re distribution of national land.
In 1590, Hideyoshi announced the end of further class movement or change their social status, which increased the Peasant class And the warriors, only the latter can carry a weapon) class gap.
In 1591, he planned to let his son show time when white, himself as too regent. Before the end of his life, Hideyoshi to the balance of power, trying to establish a regime and make it official: five old (Ieyasu is one), to the maintenance of peace and supported Hideyoshi Toyotomi oath. Five adhere to daily work, formulate guidelines and administrative affairs. The maintenance of old, Tate and pursue the harmony between.
Momoyama (1573 to 1615) art to Hideyoshi in Fushimi (Kyoto South) to build the castle hill name, flourished in this period. During this period, have the interest to the outside, the city as the center of development, increase business handicraft industry status. The magnificent castle architecture and interior decoration, with the screen painting gold leaf decoration, the name of the strength and wealth. Foreign "barbarian" (i.e. Europe People become very common).
In 1577, Hideyoshi had occupied Nagasaki In Japan, the main location of contact with the outside world. He control of various trade groups, and try to control all of the overseas activities. Although Chinese rejected his security trade concessions efforts, but Hideyoshi or successful commercial envoys sent to now Malaysia , Philippines Islands and Thailand . He did not believe Christian Some missionaries, and persecute. This could damage the daimyo's loyalty.
In 1592, he led 200000 troops to invade Korea, was Chinese. Subsidiary of the country . His army spread rapidly in the peninsula, until the army intervened in the Korean war. In time of peace talks, Hideyoshi proposed segmentation The Korean Peninsula , free trade, and make a China princess to become Japan's Queen's unreasonable demands. Unreasonable demands Japan is Chinese flatly refused, and left in the peninsula on the Japanese army completely back to japan. So in 1597 began the second invasion, however, because in 1598 the Hideyoshi's death and suddenly ends.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in 1598, the country into chaos once again. The most powerful daimyo Leyasu Tokugawa use political means to control in Osaka city center of power, cause most famous and Toyotomi internal civil discontent. In 1600, dissatisfaction with the name in the civil service Ishida Minari With the name Mao Lihuiyuan Under the call of an expedition against Leyasu Tokugawa, both in the Battle of Sekigahara In the play, Leyasu Tokugawa gain a complete victory, become the actual Ruler . In 1603 the emperor decreed its closure for the Shogun , entered the The Edo period .