Bulgarian rose essential oil
Bulgarian Rose history
The famous "Rose City" in the Kazanlak rose valley. Late spring and early summer, rose in prosperous in the valley, Barry fragrance. Kazan Leke is developed based on the medieval Karen fort on seventeenth Century, the development of manufacturing for rose essential oil center. June 5th each year is the biggest festival Kazanlekeshi once a year - Rose festival. From the last century 50's, local pick roses labor scene gradually into the interpretation of the cultural festival. The girls dressed in national costumes, hand arm filled with fresh rose petals of the flower basket, the boys will be the most excellent flowers girl carried into the square, and the traditional Huo Luo ethnic dance. And the girls will be a bunch of roses hung to the distinguished guests on the neck, and rose petals tossed into the air. Was elected "Miss Rose Queen" at the scene, will bless each to friends.
Bulgarian rose industry has 300 years of history, the Bulgarian rose flower production Rose Hydrosol, every kilograms of price of $1000. Extracted from the Bulgarian rose flowers of rose essential oil, every kilograms of price as high as $7000-8000, is 1-2 times the price of gold. Now, the Bulgarian rose has become the country's treasures, like Chinese pandas like to take out of the country, which is illegal behavior. So if you want to buy some pure from Bulgaria rose again, remember to handle the relevant procedures can.
In the first China, extraction of essential oil from rose in their. As early as in the Tang Dynasty, Yang Guifei had with roses sweet soup bath. The Qing Dynasty Empress Dowager Ci Xi also used rose production rose rouge, rose soap. Everyone must be in numerous TV seen, beautiful princess slowly into the bath petals strewn with rose petals, pink and white, even if the eye view, also like aroma blow on one's face hit the illusion.
Bulgarian Rose environment
The most comfortable world rose in Kazanlak Rose Valley Center of northeast 30 kilometers! Here at an average altitude of 200~400 meters, rose enjoyed from the East Black Sea and the Mediterranean brings warm moist air, West Balkan Mountains rose are blocked from the north cold air, caused by the temperature difference between day and night here than the large number of Rose Valley center. However, Damascus rose petals contains little flower wax, the aroma of rose to protection by what? In order to protect the rose fragrant molecules are not the sun with water and evaporated, the temperature difference between day and night more natural environment for the roses created ever more than dew. Morning dew more, more can protect the scent of roses is not lost, so there has always been a rich source of the top of the rose essential oil all over the world.
Bulgarian Rose picking
Not far away in the distance Kazanlekeshi Pavel Bania suburban rose garden, Garden owners Stow Jef J Ki planted 700 acres of rose, the Rose Festival on the same day, in addition to more than 40 workers, he also hired more than 200 farmers, for an experienced flowers people, 8 in the morning -10 point for the optimal picking time, in this period of time, can be collected three bags of roses, each bag is 5000, after picking rose sealing, so as to avoid the volatile aroma, and then transported to the factory by distillation, distillation and extraction passed 100 years of rose essential oil.
The rose is transported to the plant after a few minutes, remove bags rose would let the whole factory filled with fresh floral in. Have rich experience in operating worker extraction of rose essential oil can be called the world perfect luxury goods. The workers will first rose petals and distilled water according to 1:5 or 1:4 mixed in the distiller, cook for 3 hours on the fire, boil rose water vapor from the distillation tube into the vessel, after cooling process, with the completion of the first distillation Straw floating on the surface of the rose essential oil income dark bottles.
Normally, after this process 10 tons of rose petals can only get 1 kg quality flawless Damascus rose essential oil. In the first distillation after the rest of Damascus rose water after second times of distillation, so refined 1 kg oil requires about 5000 kg of rose petals. Extraction of rose essential oil is the key to decide the quality of essential oils, essential oil refining master skills play a decisive role in Damascus rose essential oil quality, experienced instructors will at the appropriate time will be strong little fire, and use a small fire to distillation, with flowing cold water cooling in the cooler, thus extracted in Damascus rose oil is called "liquid gold", to show the most perfect quality.
Bulgarian RoseOil identification
First of all, the import of pure rose essential oil is have their own "identity card", that is the certificate of origin. This certificate will clarify the essential raw material, and whether the product is qualified and other information. With it, we can rest assured purchase.
Secondly, rose essential oil product color should be pale yellow. Smoke smell can feel strong and sweet fragrance, eyes closed, a pleasant feeling of relaxation. Do not think that rich and sweet fragrance is inferior in quality to reflect, to the contrary, the concentration of unilateral rose essential oil is very high, so the fragrance is superior quality performance.
Finally, we need to price, specifications and packaging, three aspects to judge. Oil extraction cost material and production, extraction and the oil yield and other factors will determine the price. Most of the pure essential oil prices have more than hundred dollars, such as AFU Afu rose essential oil, rose petals 3000-5000 kg to 1 kg of rose oil extraction, and ten copies of expensive. From the specifications, usually unilateral International Standard Specification for 10ml essential oil, pure essential oil 20ml and the above specifications are more rare, and some limited edition and extremely expensive oil sold by 8ml or 5ml.
At the same time, oil must be in dark glass bottles to ensure its quality, this is because the light, heat, humidity will destroy the constituents of essential oil. The best dark green glass bottle. This kind of glass bottle price is more expensive, but it is the essential oil retention period longer than other colors. If you want to choose the best packaging of essential oils, can have a try always adhere to the "little green bottle" AFU Afu, oil quality can be guaranteed through the origin selected and Standard Specification for the best dark green glass bottle, and the oil retention period is longer, but also for us to choose.
Bulgarian rose essential oil is the best one of essential oil has many uses of the. It not only can make you from depression, grief, anger and fear out, but also to help the heart and digestive system, solve the problem of women is the most amazing; at the same time, one of the best oil is also used in the skin effect.
1) Damascus rose essential oil soothes and coordination of emotion, anger, depression, fear, grief, the nervous and depressed help; at the same time, ability can increase the desire, its nourishing, self-confidence and emotional problems.
2) it has the very big help to the circulation and heart problems are not good, including heart palpitations, arrhythmia and hypertension; it is also used to improve the function of liver and gallbladder.
3) for respiratory system, Damascus rose essential oil helps to solve the cough and asthma, hay fever; in the digestive system, to improve liver congestion and good nausea nausea.
4) Damascus rose essential oil has a clear, purification, regulation and purification of the female reproductive organ effect; can be used to adjust and balance the hormone secretion, irregular menstruation, leucorrhea abnormal uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, uterine and other disorders of the uterus, coordination is made complete, is the best care for women.
5) for The skin Gem is very effective, it can increase the skin moisture, increase the bound water content; at the same time, the skin also has bactericidal and incentive effect, suitable for all skin types, however, is particularly suitable for dry, mature and allergic skin. Can also be used for capillary repair broken, reduce inflammation and redness of the skin, help eczema and simplex rehabilitation. Rose water may be used for the treatment of conjunctivitis.
Bulgarian Rose book international flavor, flowers, blossom, blossom with a sweet fragrance of roses, is the best varieties of rose essential oil is extracted and production Rose Hydrosol, has the very high economic value. Rich in vitamins, glucose, fructose, citric acid, malic acid, three terpenoids Bulgarian rose flowers (three terpenoids has good anti-aging effects) hundreds of substances beneficial to human health. In addition, also containing citronellol, geraniol many hundreds of aromatic substances. Bulgarian rose industry has a history of over 300 years, the reputation of "the rose Kingdom". The Bulgarian rose flower production Rose Hydrosol, every kilograms of price of 1000 yuan. Extracted from the Bulgarian rose flowers of rose essential oil, every kilograms of price is as high as 7000 ~ 8000 dollars, known as "liquid gold". At present, our country to Bulgaria rose as raw materials, developed the rose essential oil, oil, rose extract, sugar rose, rose, rose flowers, rose bud, dried rose petals, Rose (Rose) and other products, these products are the important raw material of extremely valuable natural flavor, spices and food aroma, raw material but also the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, tea, cosmetics and other popular production and indispensable.
In the food industry, roses are the traditional fillings additives and flavoring material. It is often used as a pastry fillings and production rose sauce, rose wine, rose wine, beer, soda, additives, food, beverage, sugar roses, jelly, or being used as the raw material;
In the cosmetics industry, rose essential oil is the production of high-grade perfume, skin care cosmetics, hair cosmetics, beauty cosmetics indispensable and very expensive raw materials. Such as: toilet water, lotion, cream, cream, lotion, toner, facial mask, Cleansing Cream, shampoo (shampoo), the main ingredients and additives of shampoo, conditioner, soap, hair cream, hair gel, mousse, Hair Coloring agent, cold hot liquid, powder, powder, paint the drama;
In the tobacco industry, especially high-grade cigarette need to use rose essential oil as a flavouring agent.
1, can add moisture, moisturizing, it contains moisturizing factor, which can be the skin to fully absorb and retain moisture;
2, can clean the skin, it is sprayed on the skin surface, can completely remove the skin surface and the dirt inside the pores, so as to achieve the purpose of purifying the skin. The beauty before using this product, can promote skin absorption of nutrients;
3, quickly diminish inflammation, this product contains a large number of aromatic alcohols, antibacterial, strong bactericidal effect, can promote capillary contraction. With the product is sprayed on the skin irritation, can bear fruit within a few seconds.
4, the antiallergic and antipruritic, if you belong to sensitive skin, it can help you to fade due to direct sunshine and red skin. For rosea eliminating, prickly heat. There is itching for mosquito bites.
5, anti-aging effect, nutrient Rose Hydrosol, not only rich in vitamins, glucose, fructose, citric acid, malic acid, beneficial to human health, but also rich in three terpenoids (three terpenoids has good anti-aging effects), with the function of delaying senility of skin. Can effectively remove wrinkles. To apply eye, fatigue can be eliminated in a short time, improve dark circles, use after moisturizing and rich luster.
6, calm and aphrodisiac, this product has a strong sedative, can effectively relieve tension.
The rose dregs are in development, with high edible and medicinal value.
According to reports, the 1938 Morocco atlas flower company established the first extraction of rose essential oil factory. Sold in France and its essential oil. Then the French, Bulgarian rose oil is produced. Rose essential oil quality the best Bulgarian, enjoy high reputation in the international market. Followed by: Turkey, Morocco, france. Because of the social system and so on to. At present, the Bulgarian rose essential oil yield and planting area of continuous decline in the. At present, the Bulgarian rose essential oil with an annual output of about 1200kg. The neighboring country Turkey's planting area and yield of essential oil has an increasing trend. The cultivation area of China is expanding rapidly rose of bulgaria. The Bulgarian rose oil output in 2005 was about 100kg.
Bulgaria is located in north latitude 43o longitude 24, O, Eurasian convergence of the Balkan peninsula east, belonging to the four seasons of the continental climate, the rose of Sophia Valley, the annual average temperature of 10.4 ℃, the average January temperature of -1.7 ℃, due to the impact of the Atlantic, the average summer temperatures rarely exceed 30 ℃. Bulgarian rose is one of India and Iran -- the Syrian force -- Morocco Bulgaria, its poor cold resistance, its processing varieties to Damascus based series. Its products are welcomed in the international market, every kilograms of Bulgarian rose oil production costs $7000 to $8000, about China rose 3 to 5 times.
Bulgarian Rose adaptability, suitable for neutral or slightly alkaline soil cultivation, in slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soil can normally grow, cultivation easy management, high economic benefit. China's Yangtze River to the north and Beijing in the south area can be cultivated. Is a burgeoning industry that has broad market prospect and huge development potential.
Cultivation history of China rose
In our country, in the use of roses cultivation has a long history, according to records, the first extraction of essential oil from rose in the Mongols (Chinese). As early as in the Tang Dynasty, Yang Guifei had with roses sweet soup bath. Is 5 years (AD 954 years) Kunming country offer rose perfume 15 bottles from Western clothes, with open and fragrant reduction. The Qing Dynasty Empress Dowager Ci Xi also used rose production rose rouge, rose soap. In ancient China, rose is primarily used to ornament garden, garden landscaping and residential environment. At the same time some roses for bubble dew, smoked tea, medicine, wine, marinate sauce and pastry fillings etc.. Shandong Pingyin is one of China's cultivated rose earlier, has been cultivated for more than 600 years, Shandong Pingyin rose is one of the most famous native products of china. However, early planting roses are the domestic varieties. Since the 1960 "year in Pingyin held a national production site after the rose, rose cultivation has developed very quickly. Since 1960, China has successively introduced foreign varieties are: Bulgaria rose pink and white roses, Soviet perfume rose 1, No. two, No. three, No. four. The domestic and foreign rose varieties are: Rosa damascena Mill; Rosa alba L.; Rosa centifolia L. (the rose) etc..
Since eighty time, foreign investors optimistic about China's rose oil production. France In our country, Bulgaria were built fragrant rose oil production base for international, regional and inappropriate choice of failed. In 1984 the French in Gansu water area for three consecutive years cultivation of foreign roses, because winter frost damage caused by the failed. Introduction to Zhejiang Bulgaria rose, flower bud differentiation is not good because of the warm winter, low yield, also stop test in three years. Only at the end of the 80's, introduction to Shaanxi Bulgaria rose and rose of Morocco well. Among them: after years of cultivation and screened the Bulgarian rose -- Damascus No. 1, higher flower yield (per 500 ~ 750KG), essential oil of good quality, great potential for development.
Cultivation and utilization situation around the roses
Many around the cultivation in China rose species, has the following several major common:
The rose (Rosa rugosa cv. "Piena"): is widely cultivated throughout the double petalled varieties. The oil yield of 0.03- ~ 0.04-. This kind of rose in Sichuan called "Shu Mei", Chongqing called "sugar rose", Shandong called "Pingyin Rose "Beijing City, called" Rose of Miaofeng Mountain ", Zhejiang" Hangzhou rose ", Shanxi called" Qingxu rose ", Gansu called" Gong Jia Wan rose".
② Kushui Rose (R.sertataXR.rugosa Yu.et.Ku.): oil rate of about 0.04- at the end of 4 to early 5, fl..
The heart-shaped Mei (Rosa chinensis Jacq.): this species is cultivated roses, florescence 5 to September.
Xi'an city "three Fu Wan rose", Shandong Heze, Dingtao "Ocean Rose", Henan province "orangutan blood rose" are rose cultivars.
The French Rose (Rosa.gallica L.): this kind of Sichuan called "ocean rose".
To Me (Rosa mutifloa cv. "Platyhylla"): it is the crop "Seven Sisters", this kind of not as a spice plant cultivation.
The "red ink" is also called "red double glow" ("H.T.rosa cv. Crimson Glory): is a hybrid tea rose, lower plant height. Beijing need to overburden the cold. Near Hangzhou as a spice plant cultivation. Florescence 5 to in November, the per mu yield of 300 ~ 350 kg, the extraction rate of about 0.15-.
⑦ Luogang Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.): is a commonly used aromatic plants in Europe, but not cold.
The State Economic and Trade Commission in 1984 began mass introduction of Bulgarian rose, and success. So far, the Bulgarian rose cultivation area of about 3000 acres. Of which: area of Weinan Province, Shaanxi has about 1500 acres, about 1500 acres of Hebei province. In 1996, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University national commitment to the introduction of foreign advanced agriculture project -- essential rose varieties and processing technology. After the introduction, several years of research, production, processing and processing equipment in the rose oil development has made a series of achievements in scientific research. At present, has been able to extract the comparable with the rose kingdom of Bulgaria rose essential oil products, product quality has reached the export standards, close to international advanced level. At the same time, it has also developed a new generation of rose essential oil extraction equipment, in China to fill the gaps in this area. On this basis, Hebei Academy of agriculture and forestry "Bulgarian rose seedlings fast breeding and comprehensive utilization" project group, the Bulgarian rose seed breeding, cultivation and management, base construction, extraction of rose essential oil, Rose Hydrosol production, related equipment research and development of new products, strive for further improvement, the production of Bulgaria rose essential oil, Rose Hydrosol and product quality reaches the advanced level and over similar products in the international. Products have been sold to Taiwan, South Africa, France, Denmark America, more than 10 countries and regions.
Since 50 time, China's Shandong Pingyin, Jiangsu Wuxi, Shanghai and other places has completed the industrial rose oil extraction. At present, the annual output of about rose oil 1000kg, the yield of Yongdeng County of Gansu Province, with an annual output of oil 600kg. The cultivar is generally rose, flower yield is 300 ~ 400kg/ mu. Because of our country rose essential oil extracted with wax fragrance flavor, not by the international market, it is difficult to enter the international market. Of course, China's cultivated roses also has its own characteristics, namely sweet incense rhyme. The beginning of a sense of elegant aroma, can smell the rich aroma of rose. Therefore, it was called "sweet as honey, fragrant". China's Beijing rose of Miaofeng Mountain, at the beginning of this century the International Fair in Panama won the gold medal. According to the 1983 "perfume, essence and cosmetics" fourth reports, the famous oil expert Wells (F.V.Wells) had six countries rose oil sensory contrast identification, think Chinese rose oil aroma, sweet alcohol, quality is excellent. It shows that the Chinese rose essential oil quality is improving, and beginning in the international market have a certain competitiveness.
Until the end of twentieth Century, domestic oil major aromatic substances detected only 50 ~ 70, and foreign oil can detect more than 100 kinds, that in addition to varieties reasons, at that time, the domestic rose essential oil production equipment and processing technology level is relatively low, some low content of chemical components, in the process of being lost or reduced to cannot be detected. However, after 1996, units in China Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Hebei Academy of agriculture and Forestry Sciences have to carry out the research. So far, China's industrialization production technology of Bulgarian rose cultivation, breeding, rose essential oil, rose water and related equipment development, development has reached the international advanced level, some key technologies, has reached the international advanced level.
Processing in China rose products used mainly in the production of dry flower, flower stem. In addition to its products are exported to Southeast Asia and China's Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan regions for tea, pharmaceutical, domestic market demand has increased dramatically. With the rapid development of China's economy and the improvement of people's living standards, development, processing technology in China rose and its products has been greatly improved. Rose essential oil extraction, extraction equipment developed many key technologies have been close to international advanced level. Has developed a rose extract, sugar rose, Rose (rose flower water), rose wine, rose powder and a series of new products rose. This indicates that China's rose industry is starting to mature. With the continuous development of our economy and the adjustment of agricultural structure, our country's rose industry ushered in a golden opportunity, as long as we seize this opportunity, 3 ~ 5 years, China has the ability to become the world's largest rose and its products cultivation, processing, export base.
Rose is an important and expensive raw material in making perfume. According to reports, since 1988, in the international market, the annual demand of Bulgaria, France and other countries of the rose essential oil increased with the rate of 10-. In the domestic market, the social demand for rose oil is the rapid rise. Our own production of the aroma of rose oil every kilograms of price has reached 35000 yuan, Chinese aroma of rose oil is also sold more than 10000 yuan per kilogram. French Rose Perfume (100ml/ bottle) in our price is as high as 1500 ~ 3800 yuan, and sales momentum is good.
According to China spice fragrance cosmetics industry association to provide information, in 1995 the total output value of China's fragrance and flavor industry reached 8700000000 yuan, profits and taxes of about 2780000000 yuan, the profit amounted to 850000000 yuan, exports reached US $427000000, more than 900 varieties of products, natural perfume base 7000000 acres.
With the development of reform and opening-up, the people's spiritual and material life level unceasing enhancement, people's life as beautifying cosmetics as demand increases. It is reported, "eight five" period, China's cosmetics production and consumption has been rapid development. In 1990 the cosmetics sales for 4500000000 yuan, 4.5 times in 1985 1000000000 yuan; in 1993 9000000000 yuan, in 1994 reached 14000000000 yuan. 10 years, an increase of nearly 14 times. Cosmetics industry in 1995 total output value reached 19000000000 yuan, grew 35- than 1994 14000000000 yuan output value. There are thousands of varieties of cosmetics, a dozen years ago only a few hundred kinds. The existing billion yuan output value of enterprises reached more than 30. So our daily cosmetics needs be just unfolding. Such as make a horizontal comparison with the developed countries, it is more clear. According to the report: the United States, Japan in the aspects of consumption than our high 100 ~ 300 times. Chinese beauty consciousness is not worse than foreigners, with the development of reform and opening-up, economic level and the improvement of people's living standard, the demand for spices will rise sharply. Therefore, China is a huge potential market demand a spice.
Demand rose bud, petal rose sharply, according to estimates: in 2001 the national export of our country and domestic sales rose bud, flower petals about 800 ~ 1000 tons, the gap of about 1000 tons. The huge international flavor of rose oil gap.
The spices in the international market is also a great demand, and increased year by year. In 1985 the world perfume total sales of $7800000000, the average annual increase of 11.7-, rose essential oil increased an average of 10-. At the end of 70, the international market demand for each year of rose oil and extract of 20 tons, the main export countries are Bulgaria, the Soviet Union, Turkey, Morocco and France, the five countries at the time the production of rose oil and rose extract total about 25 tons. Exports accounted for about 80- of total production. And America imports in 1977 rose oil 16 tons, in 1983 imports of 15.074 tons, imported 23.68 tons in 1984. Rose oil prices are also rising. From 1977 to 1979, the Bulgarian rose oil price of $2800 for an average of 2500 ~ /kg, the eighty generation of the early rising to $4500 in /kg. Turkey rose oil 1977 ~ 1979 the average price of $2300 /kg, at the end of 80 rose to $7300 in /kg.
China is the hometown of rose, a long history of cultivation, cultivation of a wide range of production, but oil industry rose planting area is limited, the national total of only 2 acres, and plant varieties to rose grievances are, though, with a rose in the production of essential oils with rose fragrance, but because the smell too strong, and the waxy flavor is heavy, the flavor is not affected by the favor of the international market, more difficult to enter the international market.
From the beginning of the 60's of the 20th century, China has introduced foreign rose varieties, and have achieved success. But not a size. Even with the great popularization and application prospect in the Bulgarian rose, cultivation area of only 3000 acres. From the formation of industrialization is still a great distance. On the other hand, many areas of our country northern suitable for international flavor rose growth, natural environment is superior, the land, abundant labor resources, low production cost. In addition, we have mastered the cultivation and processing technology, Bulgarian rose at the same time, China has joined the WTO, the agricultural structure adjustment in urgent need of the present, with good social and economic conditions. In this case, the construction of large-scale international flavor and has a long history of Bulgaria rose production base, we have adopted the international advanced level with the essential oil extraction technology, the production of rose oil industry prospects are very broad and beautiful. This will be China as early as possible among the best way first-class rose production power international.
With the construction of an area of 10000 acres of the rose garden as an example, the average per mu yield of flowers as 600kg, with an annual output of flowers content up to 6000000 kg, extraction of rose essential oil 2160kg (flower oil rate is 3/10000. Six), according to 350000000 yuan per kilogram rose essential oil; only one, the annual output value of up to 75600000 yuan per mu yield; rose water 600kg, 10000 acres of the rose garden with an annual output of 6000000 kg per kilogram rose water, rose water in 20 yuan, 6000000 kg of rose water up to 120000000 yuan in output value. The rose dregs benefit negligible. 10000 acres of the rose garden, the annual output of up to 195600000 yuan. Mu output value of 19560 yuan, after deducting the cost of flowers, salt, coal purchase fee, water, electricity and labor management such as taxes, annual net profit of about 145600000 yuan, the average per mu / year net income 14560 yuan.
Bulgarian rose oil production research
Rose is one of the world's flowers, known as "Queen of flowers", in the ancient Chinese revered as "goddess of flowers". Extracted from the rose petals of rose oil, known as "liquid gold". Bulgaria has a reputation of "Rose", Bulgarian rose oil production, quality and export volume ranking first in the world.
Use a, rose and rose oil.
Usually the international rose, rose, Rose Rose (referred to as Rose). Rose varieties, Bulgarian rose the most varieties, there are about more than 150 varieties, the main planting roses in Damascus (damaskrose), which belongs to the Rosaceae, deciduous shrub. As a world famous flowers roses have a high ornamental value, in addition, also has a wide range of medical, industrial, food, daily chemical industry utility value, rose bud, petal can be used to make tea. Rose is set ornamental, greening, medicinal, edible in one of woody plants.
With the petals of the rose oil production rose to basically have two kinds of methods: distillation and solvent extraction. Distillation of products: rose oil (colorless or yellowish liquid), and by-products rose water (a small amount of rose oil dissolved cannot completely extracted in water); solvent extraction, products are: Rose sauce (concrete, waxy, light brown, semi solid) (Roseabsolute) and rose essence, using alcohol the solvent from the micro red liquid rose sauce extraction). Oil output rose by solvent extraction was 10 times of distillation and extraction method.
Rose oil is known as "liquid gold", in fact, more precious than gold, a kilo of rose oil price is equal to half a kilogram of gold. Rose oil is the world famous senior concentrated flavor, is the essential oil in the boutique, rose oil is both important and expensive raw materials manufacturing senior precious perfume, can also be used to make beauty, skin care, hair care cosmetics.
Two, world oil output rose and market
In 1987, the world of rose essential oil yield is 15-20 tons, mainly the production of state-owned Bulgaria, Turkey, Morocco, France, Italy, India and China. The rose of the world oil production capacity of 3000 kg. Bulgarian rose oil production for 1849 1852: 900 kg, 1500 kg, the highest yield in 1905-1914 3000-6000 kg. In 1989 the output of 2000 kilograms, 1000 kilograms of 93 years. In 2002 the output of 700 kilograms, in 2003 the output of 900 kilograms.
American, France is a major importer of rose oil, 1924-1930 years France imported an average 1670 kg of rose oil, Germany imported 500 kilograms per year, USA annually imports 730 kg, 280 kg 580 kg of Switzerland, england. USA imports in 1977 rose oil 16 tons, in 1983 imports of 15.074 tons, imported 23.68 tons in 1984.
Bulgaria is the largest producer and exporter, the rose essential oil most of the export to America, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Holland, Japan and Arabia state. The used in the manufacture of perfume and essence of rose, have seventy percent from bulgaria. 89 years ago, the annual export volume of Bulgarian rose oil is about 2 tons, production decline in exports. In 2001, the Bulgarian rose oil 120 kg total export, mainly exported to France, USA and Switzerland etc.. Exports in 2002 rose oil is about 1200 kilograms, ranking first in the world, accounting for 40- of the international market.
The spice international demand is very big, and has increased year by year. In 1985 the world perfume total sales of $7800000000, the average annual increase of 11.7-, rose essential oil increased an average of 10-. According to reports from 1988 since, in great demand on the international market every year to Bulgaria, France and other countries of the rose essential oil is growing at a rate of 10-. 1977-1979, the average price of the Bulgarian rose oil is 2500-2800 dollars / kg, in the early eighty rising to $4500 / kg. In 1999, the international market of French Chanel rose price per 10 grams of $69.
Three, the Bulgarian rose oil characteristics
Russia rose gentle, India rose weak, rich in Egypt rose, rose Turkey sweet, Morocco rose bright, while the Bulgarian rose petals and rounded, superior quality, high oil yield, usually 2000-3000 kg of rose petals (about 1 hectares) can be extracted from 1 kg of rose oil. The production of rose oil, pure aroma. Because of the quality of the Bulgarian rose oil is high, its flavor is There is nothing comparable to this, so its price than other countries is high, the price in the international market is $6000 per kg in 3500 - 2003, June for the price of $4000 per kg.
Bulgarian rose oil is also known as the Rose Otto or Rose Attar, pink, green, blue, gold and silver white.
Be richly endowed by nature four, Bulgaria rose planting conditions
Rose is like cold heat, Yin, Yang jealous love fertilizer tolerance and barren, like water enough fertilizer Feng, pH value between 6.0-6.5, convenient irrigation, drainage performance good soil, rose growth and blossom period shall be enough water.
The famous "Rose Valley" is located in the center area of Kazan Leke (Kazanlak) -- something near 100%130 kilometers long, north-south width of 10-15 km of the valley, at an altitude of 300-710 meters, the north is higher than the valley 1600 meters above the Balkan Mountains, blocking the winter south wind, while the Southern mountain gap, warm moist air flow along the Mediterranean into the valley, the climate is mild climate throughout the year, the amount of rainfall; plus the sandy soil fertile and loose, the rain is not water; every year in February while the rose during germination, Rose Valley mild temperatures; adequate 5-6 months is rose blossom, rain, cloudy weather more, no sun, air humidity is bigger, often with dew, the weather will not only extend the blossom period, and restrain the flower oil and volatile components evaporate, this is to improve the yield and quality of rose oil is the key factors. Because of this petal surface wax film, but unlike other parts of the rose in order to protect themselves from strong sunlight petal surface wax membrane thicker. This is why the waxy ingredients less Bulgarian rose oil in reason. The above be richly endowed by nature of natural geography and climate condition, very suitable for growing roses, together with the local Bulgarian rose oil processing technology, the Bulgarian rose oil There is nothing comparable to this in quality.
"Rose Valley" is the main origin of Bulgarian rose, rose above 3/4 here on the yield, the whole valley is full of roses, a total area of nearly 3000 hectares. When summer comes, "Rose Valley" became the Rose Sea, varieties of different shapes, color roses flourish, the Rose Valley filled with roses. The rose fragrance, the oil rate.
Five, the Bulgarian rose oil industry development history
As early as in 1270, the introduction of Bulgaria rose from Syria Damascus. In sixteenth Century, Bulgaria rose extract rose water, since 1680 began to be used in the production of most Bulgarian rose perfume industry with rose oil, Bulgarian rose oil or middle of eighteenth Century by Turkey Istanbul sea, or by the Romania Bucharest and Austria Vienna road exports to europe. The early nineteenth Century Rose Valley of roses and rose oil production is in the form of family workshops.
Later cultivates an area to expand ceaselessly, by twentieth Century, Bulgaria has become the world's largest oil producing country, Bulgaria rose is grown mainly in 5 areas: Kazan Leke (Kazanlak), Calov (Karlovo), tchellorpan (Tchirpan), Stara (Stara) and Nova zhagela (NovaZagora). In 1906 to develop to the 22 area, to the 40's only 6 area. In early twentieth Century, the annual output of 3000-6000 kg, 1917 Paul rose planting area of 8000 mu, engaged in the production of industry workers rose about 200000 people. Provides more than half of the world's oil demand.
In 1922 the Bulgarian government first formulated laws, in the form of law to promote the rose industry. Therefore, the establishment of a large number of rural cooperatives in processing rose, many cooperatives distillation plant, equipped with new equipment, rose essential oil distillation extraction. The initial research work on rose from then on. Refining and trade rose oil into the government under the control of the Agricultural Bank, to promote and monitor the rose oil industry. Other oil crops such as peppermint and lavender is also developed in this period.
But the world "depression" period, World War II and the forced collectivization make a big change. After World War II, the rose garden and the distilleries back for all countries, the rose industry by the state monopoly, Sofia owned "Bulgarian Rose company" was established, unified production and distribution of rose oil and other oil and byproducts. Other extraction compounds, aromatic semi-finished products, cosmetics, shampoo and other products are an important development in this period.
Bulgaria from the period of socialist transition to a market economy, because of land privatization and the rose garden not dressing and other reasons, rose planting area reduction, refinery technology obsolete, oil output rose sharply. 90 years later the Bulgarian rose oil accounts for the international market share from 80 in 70- to 30-.
In recent years, rose planting and rose oil processing industry recovery, and the Ministry of agriculture has to offer credit to farmers, to expand the rose growing industry. Even so, the rose oil production is still less than 89 years (and the socialist system crashes) level of 2 tons. Bulgarian rose planting area of only about 1800 hectares, planning an annual increase of 200 hectares. The annual output of 1000-1300 kg.
Rose petals containing more oily, stamen also contains oil, can be extracted to join together in the petals. Refined rose oil method: solvent Cui method, distillation, carbon dioxide extraction. But the early rose oil extraction distillation extraction method, rose petal by steam distillation and get, but rose petals and the oil yield is very low, the average is about 0.02-0.05-. Rose must be collected before the sun rise to the top of the mountain, otherwise you will lose color and aroma of the sun. Extraction of essential oils from Bulgaria in 1904 by solvent extraction, the extraction method has since become very common.
In the traditional workshop, distillation extraction is the rose petals and water (with water) by 1:5 or the ratio of 1:4 into the tank (distiller) in the fire cook 3 hour, rose water steam boiling the top of the distillation tube into the bottle, after cooling processes, suction pipe float on the surface of rose oil income dark inside the bottle, the remaining water is distilled second times, or 10 tons of petals can only get 1 kilograms of oil. This extract 1 kg of rose oil is about 3000 kg of rose petals. Quality depends on the rose rose oil production and refining his skills. Allegedly, the secret is in the appropriate time will be strong little fire, and use a small fire to distillation, with water cooling in the cooler. Extraction of rose oil storage in copper vial.
Bulgaria is the traditional way rose processing workshop, is a factory with modern equipment.
In 2002, the harvest is not good because of climate reasons, in 2003 the production of restoration of the Bulgarian rose oil output up to 900 kilograms, exports increased by 30-.
Six, to explore the possibility of the Bulgarian rose, planting, rose oil processing and trade cooperation
China is the hometown of rose, a long history of cultivation, cultivation of a wide range of production, but oil industry rose planting area is limited, the national total of only 2 acres, and cultivars with rose grievances are, but because of its fragrance too thick, and heavy meat, not subject to the international market popular, more difficult to enter the international market. Begin from 60 time, our country has introduced foreign rose varieties, and have achieved success, but has not yet formed the scale.
In recent years, rose, rose, rose buds, rose bud, the market demand is increasing year by year, prices rose steadily. The acquisition price rose 7-10 yuan (RMB, similarly hereinafter) / kg; Rose Squaring up to 20 - 40 yuan / kg; rose bud the price per ton rose to 11 - 160000 yuan, compared with last year rose 30000 yuan. According to market survey, China's pharmaceutical, food, chemical industry and exports rose to 300000 tons, while production is only tens of thousands of tons, far from the market demand, the contradiction between supply and demand is very sharp. After China's entry into WTO medicinal rose highly opportunities, export the scope will be expanded, the channel will widen, export goods.
China's production of the international flavor of rose oil every kilograms of price has reached 2-3 million, Chinese flavor oil rose 10000 yuan per kilogram. French Rose Perfume (100ml/ bottle) in our price is up to 1500-3800 yuan, and good sales momentum.
To explore the possibility of PICC in rose and rose oil refining production cooperation:
1, the domestic enterprises to Bulgaria rose planting. Bulgaria has amended the constitution, allowing foreigners to buy land in Bulgaria, condition is to set up the company. A few years ago when Bulgaria rose garden, has not yet been fully restored. The domestic enterprises or individuals can try this opening to Bulgaria, founded the company after the purchase of a deserted in the rose garden of the Rose Valley, the Rose Valley advantage climate conditions and natural environment growing roses.
2, the domestic enterprises to cooperate with local farmers in bulgaria. Local farmers lack capital, but has rich planting technology and experience, and the fund of our country enterprise than the foot, just complementary advantages. On the one hand, new ways to open up a Chinese enterprises to go out on a new path, another for cooperation between the two countries. On the other hand, to alleviate the employment problem of the shortage of parts.
3, the domestic enterprises to cooperate with the local Bulgarian rose oil factory. Local rose oil factory is lack of funds, equipment stale. Therefore, I related enterprises of China funded can try to protect with these companies, or the acquisition of the factory. Using their skills and experience, refined rose oil, and the use of their brand and sales channels, to the international market sales.
4, import the Bulgarian rose oil, or joint venture with the Bulgarian company, a start-up company in China. By the insurer to rose oil, technical personnel folded shareholders, our shares to land, workshop etc.. First of all to do cosmetic company in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other big city in Bulgaria rose oil, high quality brand, attract domestic high income people, fashionable beauty, believe that can receive good economic effect.