That is The ancient Greek Master slave state of Athens democratic political system. It is formed in the The primitive society Disintegrate. Slavery The process, product and civilians aristocratic clan struggles and slavery economy development. As early as in the end of seventh Century b.c., Athens Clan The nobility And Civilian The Contradiction Has developed into a very sharp degree. The monarchy And Aristocracy Different, aristocracy is one kind of the system of collective leadership, equal consultation, The minority is subordinate to the majority The principle of rule of law.
In 594 BC by both parties choose the arbitrator Solon Implementation of the reform, the abolition of the debt slavery (i.e., all the debt city citizen personal mortgage), with property for the amount standard re division of citizenship grades, improve the The citizens assembly Power and set up a four hundred conference and the jury court, as the highest administrative and judicial organs, adjusted the different class citizen group relation, laid the foundation of democracy in athens; Peisistratus (about late seventh Century BC - 527 BC) and their descendants The tyrant Reign (560 BC -- BC 510 years, two times in the discontinuous) objectively against the aristocratic clan, improve peasant citizen as main economic status, promoted the development of the economy, culture. In 508 B.C. Cleisthenes Reform, instead of blood organizations as the national administrative units with the regional organization, with five hundred people in the meeting instead of four hundred people meeting and permission has expanded, creating fifty groups to deal with daily Administrative affairs Found Ten the General Council This reform, promote the development of democracy in Athens, thoroughly cleaning the grass clan system obstacle, marks the final establishment of Athenian democracy. Christini An important step is to establish the" Ostracism ".
Yes The Persian Wars Victory, greatly promoted the development of the slave owning economy, cause changes in contrast the citizens of Athens internal different classes of power, resulting in 462 BC (or 441 BC). Maher Faye Art And in 443 BC Baillie Kerry Reform. These reforms are deprived by the former Archon The meeting is composed of aristocratic power, the power of citizen conference, the people were handed over to the court and Five hundred people Council Thus, the development of democratic politics on a new level. Military colonial system, various social donation and the citizen allowance and be busy at putting up installations, the small producers accounted for most of the citizens enjoy a certain security of material life and spiritual life. In the Pericles During his reign (443 BC - 429 BC) of Athens have reached its heyday in the economic, political and cultural aspects, be about Greece The world situation the country and a major cultural center.
Pericles in Athens democracy characteristics during the:
1, the Office (in addition to ten general external) appear in the open to the people;
2, five hundred conference dominated by public jury, aristocratic meeting lost all political rights;
3, to hold public office or city-state activity of citizens payroll or subsidies. (previously aristocratic ruling without pay, civilian it is difficult in the case of no income to hold public office.
4, expand the scale and the authority of the jury court, making it the highest judicial and supervisory organ.
Athenian democracy The basic characteristics of people's sovereignty and turns and rule.
Citizens of the general assembly, five hundred people Council and people court is fully embody the democratic political characteristics.
The assembly is the highest authority, responsible to review and decide on all state matters. Are all legitimate civil rights of participation, the right to know, the right to speak, the right to vote and to be elected. The program of citizen conference is the most important debate on a bill. Eloquent speech depends on the rich knowledge, a heated debate of knowledge and respect play about development.
Five hundred people Council is a subsidiary of citizens assembly, responsible for the preparation of proposals for assembly and presided over the general assembly, during a break in the assembly, the Council is the supreme power of the Congress, is responsible for the supervision and administration officials to implement the resolutions of the general assembly.
People court is daily the judicial organ, senior office qualifications, but also the people court of final appeal.
Characteristics of the sovereignty of the people of Athens is also reflected in the administrative and military authorities of many small.
Athenian democracy was Engels Known as "the most pure, the most typical form of state". Through the investigation of sixth Century ~ fourth Century BC in ancient Greek society, it is not difficult to find the Athens democratic political although simple, but it has the following distinctive features.
In Athens, where citizens enjoy full democratic rights, its power directly involved by citizens and polis affairs management approach to achieve. The top Democratic Mechanism of citizen participation in politics is the citizen conference. Citizen conference held monthly 3 ~ 4 times, all male citizens over the age of 20 have the right to participate in, enjoy equal right to vote, legislation, supervision. The public assembly, citizens of the City-state Big bill free speech or debate, finally took a vote or raise way, according to "the minority is subordinate to the majority" principle to make decision, decision once formed, can not arbitrarily change. This simple way to participate clearly expressed directly of Athenian democracy.
The essence of Athenian democracy is the sovereignty of the people. Bury Kerry's famous "funeral orations" declared: "our political system is called democracy is because the power is in the hands of all citizens, rather than in the hands of a few people." The city government in the "hands of all citizens" this is very clearly stated "sovereignty belongs to the people". The assembly has the highest decision making on the state of affairs is only "focuses on the sovereignty of the people". The assembly is the supreme organ of state power, the main functions of the election officials. Decisions of war and peace, formulate and revise laws, determine financial expenses and so on, won the domestic things. "Things" decision not to a specific person or persons will transfer around, and attended by the citizens assembly citizenry will, which showed the highest power lies in the hands of polis citizens. " The sovereignty of the people "Not only embodies in the citizen's decision, but also the citizen right of management. Every Athenian citizen can through democratic elections to become Office City, such as consuls, general, congressman, jurors, participation in state affairs. Give the public obtain depend on civil rights, rather than the powerful kings such appointment and gifts.
Athenian democracy is based on the rule of law on the basis of national politics, all the produce, development, prosperity of the process is full of the spirit of the law. "Everyone is equal before the law" is the basic political principles of the Athens democratic political operation. "Punishment is not the doctor, ritual not common people" situation is not exist in athens. Bury Kerry said: "to solve the private dispute time, everyone is equal in law." Officials must act according to law, once violated the law, he should be punished. Powerful chief General bury Kerry in office had been accused of malfeasance by the court, and be fined. The citizens of Athens as the constitution as the supreme law, shall not be infringed. "The legal format 'meeting and decided to people' at the beginning," to show its majestic and solemn. When each citizen was granted citizenship or office office, had to take an oath "protection law, loyal to the law". This reflects the law in the Athenian citizens divine status. The law is not free to change, if the new law is harmful to democracy, harmful to the city-state, any citizen can be "illegal representations of the proposal right" people accuse. Sue was established, the proposal to receive the fine punishment, and even life. The jury court There is a power, unconstitutional a law can be announced its withdrawal, so the Athenian law is relatively stable, there is no "arbitrary inconstant in policy".
Restricted by democratic power of Athens state power operation, the restriction to cross national authority as the characteristic. The power restriction mechanism of self Solon's reform First, in order to make the class live in harmony in the city, Solon to "a mediator between the two sides" attitude that opposition to certain power range "boundaries", the mutual restriction of power, to "harmonious power". This also began to give The citizens assembly From the legislative, the jury court with jurisdiction, Five hundred people at the meeting The administrative power, and to restrict each other.
In ancient times Autocratic monarchy The current situation, the Athens democracy provides the new situation is a collective management for human beings, created the legal basis of balance election system, term of office, the parliamentary system, the system of proportional representation and democracy works. The core of Athenian democracy is our citizens participate directly in the principle, citizens have the right to decide and manage state affairs, through elected to all levels of government office. Ancient political system advanced this, create opportunities for citizen participation, arouse the citizen's freedom, pioneering spirit, promote the development of the social economy and culture, progressive historic.
The 1 democratic is conducive to a correct decision
2 democracy is favorable to the correction of errors
3 democracy to supervise the government for public service, reduce power may
4 democracy is conducive to the promotion of culture extensive and in-depth development
The 5 provides us with a new form of collective management, create the legal basis of the election, term of office, the parliamentary system, proportional representation, by operation
The 1 is easy to cause the tyranny of the majority, i.e. mediocrity talks.
2 with the operational level of childish, procedure is reasonable and does not mean that the reasonable.
3 it is the citizenship of internal democracy, only adult male citizens really enjoy the rights. While the women and children, the Gentiles, slave excluded. It is in giving full play to the positive role, political, economic, culture contributed to the more prosperous at the same time, and cruel to suffocate, limiting their own development capacity of other members of society. Catalyst it is great civilization and social injustice, violence, this is the biggest limitation.
4 direct democracy will lead to abuse and misuse.