Study on the personality and mental aspects. Research because he applied psychological measurement method and factor analysis of personality traits, especially the classification of intelligence and well-known in the world. In 1950 was elected chairman of America Psychological Association, 1954 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, in 1964 won the award issued by the American Psychological Association outstanding science.
Guilford was born in USA Nebraska Marquardt (Marquette) of a peasant family, died of illness in California, America Losangeles .
His father is a smart, and actively learn new transaction farmer, family members, and my brother and sister. When he was in the first grade of primary school, learning achievement, can overtake the third grade level, but also at the age of 12 he passed the high school entrance examination. But because of family factors not directly into the high school, but with the same year entered high school age students. In 1914 he graduated from Aurora high school, after two years of primary school teachers, and entered the University of Nebraska to study for one year, he once wanted to become a chemist, after enlistment. In 1919 he returned to the University of Nebraska, where, Head (Winifred F. Hyde) he served as assistant to raise tuition fees, which made him interested in psychology. In 1922 and 1924 was awarded the bachelor and the school Master Academic degree. During the period, he served as director of the temporary psychological clinic, treatment of about 100 case, this experience made him feel, rely on IQ to understand children's ability is very limited, so he thinks there is identification of more complete for intelligence needs.
In 1924, he entered the Cornell University From E. s study Dr. Degree, also worked with L. Thurston, C. Spielman, Helsen (Harry Helson, 1889.11.09 1977.10.13) had contacts, and had heard of K. dallenbach course. In 1926, he and Rose (Ruth S. Burke) after marriage, have a female become industrial psychologist. In 1927, he received a doctorate of philosophy, in the The University of Illinois And University of Kansas Shortly after, in 1928 to return to the University of Nebraska as professor of psychology, here, he gradually gained international reputation and become one of the famous psychologist American. In 1940, he worked in University of Southern California, in addition to 1941 in Santa Ana army air base is responsible for the selection and ranking of the crew, work until retirement in 1962. In 1964 won the USA psychological society science Excellence Award, in 1974 by the educational testing service in educational and psychological measurement contribution award, 1977 international intelligence education chairman. In 1983 won the psychology foundation gold medal award.
1987 died in California, Losangeles America.
A total of 400 kinds of books and papers. The main works are:
"Intelligence analysis" (1971),
"Beyond IQ" (1977),
"The frame of reference for cognitive psychology" (1979)
British psychologist Spielman (C. E. Spearman) proposed in 1904 two factor theory of intelligence, that mental activities including general and special two factors; the common factor called the G factor (General Factor), the special factor called the S factor (Specific Factor). G factors represent general ability, is the subject of all mental activities, especially the ability of S factors represent individual, and only a few activities. The general intelligence tests measure, namely G factors, therefore, commonly known as the common intellectual ability.
His years in factor analysis on the basis of the study in 1959 proposed a three dimensional structure model of intelligence (Structure of Intellect, SOI) theory, he denied the existence of  common factors of G. Think from the intelligence structure operation, content, products in three dimensions to consider. Intellectual activity is processing in mind (process) the object (content), knowledge (product) process. The operation process includes cognitive intelligence, memory
, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, evaluation of 5 factors; mental processing includes graphics (specific image of things), symbol (composed of letters, numbers and other things (mark), semantic meaning and concept of word, sentence), That's ok For the (social skills), a total of 4 factors; product intelligence processing includes 6 factors, namely the unit, categories, relation, system, conversion, implication. In this way, intelligence is composed of 4 × 6 × 5=120 basic capability. Guildford has identified more than 70 intelligence factors in the intelligence structure.
He constantly enrich their own Three-dimensional space In 1971, he modified the structure, theory, the Central Plains of graphic material content, and then divided into two kind of vision and hearing, so will the intelligence as a 5 x 5 x 6=150 a combination of different factors. In 1983, he will operate in the dimension memory is divided into short-term and long-term memory, which consists of 5 to 6, factor of intelligence structure is increased to 5 x 6 x 6=180. Gilford believed that each factor is the unique ability. For example, the students to master the English word, is the semantic, memory, unit capacity. And if, say, fish, horse, monkey, chrysanthemum, the things which belong to a class, answer the question for the operation of the cognitive semantic, content, product category.
Guilford will the intelligence structure mode is recommended as the reference system of cognitive psychology. One of the content structure of intelligence theory Guilford's striking is the analysis of the creative. He had been the neglected in the creativity and intelligence concept Divergent thinking Link; also divergent thinking and convergent thinking corresponding. He believes that the divergent thinking with fluency, flexibility and originality in three dimensions, is the core of creativity. Guilford also proposed the personality is a unity composed of attitude, temperament, ability orientation, morphology, physiology, needs and interests of seven characteristics. It is the interaction of a seven angle, from different angles can be observed seven different personality traits.
Intelligence structure theory Guilford's denies the G factors exist, but his theory is proposed to create the ability to research and creativity, which provides a new clue for the study of intelligence. He studied personality traits for applied psychological measurement methods and factors, especially the classification of intelligence and well-known in the world. 1949 - 1950 President American psychological association. 1977 - 1979 international intelligence education chairman. In 1964 won the USA psychological society science Excellence Award, in 1974 by the educational testing service in educational and psychological measurement contribution award, in 1983 won the psychological foundation gold medal award etc.. A total of 400 kinds of books and papers.
In 1967, USA psychologist Gilford (J.P.Guilford) in detail, based on the analysis of factors of creativity, put forward the "three dimensional structure model of intelligence". Gilford think, by three dimensions of human intelligence should be
Ingredients: the first dimension refers to the intellectual content, including graphics, symbols, semantics and behavior of four; the second dimension refers to the intelligence operations, including perception, memory, thinking, convergent thinking and evaluation of five kinds; the third dimension refers to intellectual products, including unit, class, relation, system, transformation and contains six. So, by the four kinds of contents, five kinds of operation and six kinds of products can be a combination of 4x5x6=120 independent intellectual factors (later in 1971 and 1988 Guildford and the model made the two amendment, supplement, the final three-dimensional structure with 180 factors become).
Gilford thinks, in the second dimensions of divergent thinking "the core of creative thinking is the three-dimensional structure". So he and his aides (Torrance et al) focuses on the divergent thinking are deeply analyzed, based on the four main characteristics of divergent thinking:
Fluency (fluency): the number of concepts and ideas in a short time can continuously express;
Flexibility (flexibility): from different angles, different direction flexible thinking;
Originality (originality): the idea to solve the problem is out of the ordinary mind and create new styles;
Exquisite (elaboration): details of imagination and description of things or events.
Gilford thinks, this is also the main characteristics of creative thinking, and the specific method of a set of measurements of these characteristics. Then, they apply this theory in educational practice to cultivate divergent thinking dates around the index (by Guilford's theory, which is the creative thinking training), the cultivation of divergent thinking into workable teaching program. Although the creative thinking is equivalent to the divergent thinking is a kind of simple comprehension, but for the research and application of the creative thinking, is played no small role in promoting. Guilford and Torrance's contribution should not be denied.
The divided personality needs, physiological characteristics, interest, attitude, temperament, ability, morphology.
Test Objective: To investigate the fluency of thinking, flexibility, unique and exquisite.
Test questions: open questions.
Guilford is the chairman of USA psychological society, he thought, Divergent thinking To represent the person's creative ability in some extent, measuring the divergent thinking, measurement is essentially the creation ability. He and his colleagues have created a set of items, a total of 13 parts. The first 10 request speech reaction, 3 for the graphical content non verbal test. This set of scale age scope is mainly adolescent and adult junior high school level. The main contents are as follows:
(1) a verbal fluency test: subjects were asked to fast sketch contains a specific letter words, such as "a", ABAC, about possible answers, act,...
(2) the concept of fluency test: subjects were asked to fast sketch belongs to a special category of things, such as "semi structure object". The answer may be: the arched bridge, the parachute, swimming cap......
(3) associative fluency test: subjects were asked to list a word synonyms, such as "bear". The answer may be: bear, bear, bear......
(4) the expression of fluency test: subjects were required to write a 4 word in a word, these 4 words are assigned a letter prefix. Such as "k-u-y-i", the answer may be: keep up your interest; kill useless Yellow insects......
(5) very uses test: subjects were asked to cite some objects are often very use column uses outside, such as the "bricks and mortar". The answer may be: as the bench, dog, sharpening a scythe, office......
(6) metaphor interpretation test: subjects were asked to fill a few sentences similarity of meaning, such as "the woman's beauty is autumn, she...... "The answer may have:"...... Have spent the most beautiful time,""...... In has not yet had time to fully enjoy life entered the woman in her thirty-forties years. "Another example explain" a drop in the bucket "," kill two birds with one stone ".
(7) uses test: subjects were required to use as much as possible are one thing, such as "empty cans". The answer may be: as a vase, round cake, raising earthworms.
(8) the story: proposition test subjects were asked to write a short story all appropriate title. For example: "in the winter, the new salesman a department store busy sales gloves, but he forgot gloves should be paired to sell, the remaining 100 stores the left hand gloves. "The answer may be:" the new salesman "," 100 "," left hand glove left-handed Gospel "etc..
(9) the consequences of that test: subjects were asked to list all the different results of some hypothesis events. For example: "if every one more day rest, then what will happen? "The answer may be: people who travel more fat, more......
(10) Occupation: symbolic test asked participants according to a call to enumerate all the possible job it represents or symbol. Such as "lighting", the answer may be: Electrical Engineer, electrician, lighting manufacturing industry......
(11) the drawing test: subjects were asked to take a simple graphics complex, composed of as many recognizable object may.
(12) decoration test: subjects were required in the general outline of the object as much as possible to design different decorating schemes to.
(13) a processing object test: subjects were asked to use a set of simple patterns, such as circular, triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal, draw the specified object. In the painting object, can be reused for any graphics, can also change its size, but can add other graphics or lines.
Explanation: every answer an answer of 1 points, the higher the score, the stronger the ability of divergent thinking.
Guilford personality is also proposed Attitude , Temperament , Aptitude , morphology, Physiology , needs and Interest A unified whole six traits. It is a hexagonal cross the body, from different angles can be observed seven different personality traits. Guilford for applied psychological measurement method and factor analysis of personality traits, especially the classification of intelligence and well-known in the world.