Potassium Permanganate structure
Oxidation in ethanol, and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by. Potassium Permanganate is one of the strongest oxidizing agent, as the oxidant pH affected greatly, the strongest ability of oxidation in acidic solution. The corresponding acid permanganate HMnO4And anhydride Mn2O7, is a strong oxidant, can automatically decompose fever, contact and organic matter caused by combustion.The substance decomposes on heating:
· risk characteristics: strong oxidizing agents. In case of Sulfuric acid , Ammonium salt Or Hydrogen peroxide Can the explosion. In case of Glycerol , Ethanol Can cause spontaneous combustion. And organic matter, reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus and other flammable materials such as contact or mixed with the risk of combustion and explosion.
Hazardous combustion products: potassium oxide, manganese oxide.
Potassium Permanganate has strong oxidation, in the laboratory and industrial applications such as The oxidizing agent That is, when ethanol decomposition. In acidic medium will slow down into manganese dioxide and oxygen. A light on this catalyzes the decomposition, so in the laboratory are often kept in a brown bottle. Seen from the element potential diagram and the free energy of oxidation state diagram, it has strong oxidizing. In alkaline solution, the oxidation resistance than in the acidic medium strong. As the oxidant its reduction product because the pH of the medium and the different.
The product in organic matter released nascent oxygen and manganese dioxide, and no free oxygen atoms to emit, so no air bubbles. Nascent oxygen sterilization, deodorization, detoxification, Potassium Permanganate antibacterial and deodorizing effect than hydrogen peroxide solution with strong and durable. Manganese dioxide can bind with protein salt, a convergence effect at low concentration, irritation and corrosion at high concentration. The bactericidal power with the concentration increased, propagule 0.1- can kill most bacteria, 2- ~ 5- solution in 24 hours can kill bacterial spores. In the acid conditions can significantly improve the bactericidal effect, such as the addition of 1.1- hydrochloric acid in a 1- solution of, can kill anthrax spores in 30 seconds.
Calculation of chemical data:
|Calculation of reference value of hydrophobic parameter (XlogP)||No|
| Hydrogen bond Donor number||0|
|Hydrogen bond acceptor number||4|
|A number of rotating chemical bond||0|
|Tautomers tautomers number number||No|
|Topological polar molecular surface area (TPSA)||74.3|
|The number of heavy atoms||6|
|The surface charge||0|
|Isotopic atomic number||0|
|Determination of the atomic stereocenter number||0|
|Uncertain atomic stereocenter number||0|
|To determine the chemical bond stereocenter number||0|
|Uncertain chemical bond stereocenter number||0|
|The number of covalent bond unit||2|
Potassium Permanganate selective oxidation of alkyl compounds
In chemical industry, widely used as an oxidizing agent, such as preparation of saccharin, Vitamin C Isoniazid and benzoic acid, oxidizing agent; used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, deodorant and antidote medicine; in water purification and wastewater treatment, water treatment agent, the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide, phenol, iron, manganese and organic, inorganic and other pollutants, control odor and discoloration. Also used as a bleaching agent, adsorbent, coloring agent and disinfectant.
1, to self heating decomposition and oxygen or hydrogen peroxide.
1The chemical formula for producing oxygen Potassium Permanganate heating decomposition:
Chemical reaction of potassium manganate high temperature decomposition:
Be careful.If Potassium Permanganate larger amount, to guide in the tube mouth gently plug a group Cotton Otherwise, oxygen will Potassium Permanganate powder with blocked duct or the piston out of the Potassium Permanganate powder into the tank, dangerous waste and pollution caused by the reagent, experimental equipment.
2Potassium Permanganate and Hydrogen peroxide solution Reactive oxygen:
The acidic environment:
2,AndConcentrated Hydrochloric acid Reaction to prepare Chlorine .
The chemical formula Potassium Permanganate reacts with hydrochloric acid:
3,Also with Oxalic acid The reaction, carbon dioxide.
The chemical formula Potassium Permanganate and oxalic acid reaction:
4, special reaction
(1) two divalent manganese ions in alkaline or neutral solution, the oxidation generated to Potassium Permanganate Manganese dioxide Brown precipitate.
2. Trivalent chromium Ion in acidic or alkaline solution, the oxidation was Potassium Permanganate, its color from blue to green to yellow, and manganese dioxide hydrate brown precipitate.
The reaction could not be carried out in a cold solution, which can not be Potassium Permanganate trivalent chromium was oxidized into six price. The following reaction in acidic solution:
With alcohol or acid oxidation.
Content analysis: pre after 105 ~ 110 ℃ drying to constant weight of sodium oxalate 0.3g (referred to 0.0002g), dissolved in 100ml of water, add 1:1 of sulfuric acid solution 6ml. The other specimens of 3.3g (referred to 0.0002g) dissolved in water after the volume to 1000ml (brown volumetric flask), it is placed in the dark 1h. The supernatant in the burette, the first drop in 38ml sample solution with sodium oxalate solution, heating to 70 ~ 75 ℃, continue to drop to the solution of pink and 30s do not fade as the end. At the same time as the blank test with correction results.
Potassium Permanganate reduction:
Drugs: 1:5000 Potassium Permanganate 225ml sucrose 1.5g pH adjusting agent
|-||Acid (pH<2)||Neutral (pH2~13)||Alkaline (pH>13)|
|Start||Purple red||Purple red||Purple red|
|T1||Peach red||Purple brown||Purple|
|T2||Light red||Dark brown||Blue and green|
|T3||The red light||Brown||Green|
|T4||Meat color||Brown yellow||Green yellow|
|End||A colorless||Dark yellow||Dark yellow|
Through active groups oxidation bacteria, has bactericidal effect, Potassium Permanganate can effectively kill a variety of bacteria, fungi, body of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; also in inactivation of hepatitis B virus and spores of Bacillus, but need longer time. The organic heating, can accelerate the oxidation reaction in acid or alkaline conditions are. In different pH values of oxidation reaction conditions are different, in acidic solution itself is reverted to the two valent manganese compounds; in neutral or alkaline solution is reduced into manganese dioxide and protein complex brown precipitate. Antibacterial, convergence, hemostatic, deodorization effect of low concentration. High concentrations are irritating and corrosive. The antibacterial effects of strong than hydrogen peroxide. The main clinical as acute dermatitis or acute eczema (especially with secondary infection), clean ulcer or abscess, oral morphine, opium, strychnine or organic toxicants and poisoning gastric lavage and snake bite treatment. Also used for disinfection of fruit, food etc.. Oral for Candida albicans infection, necrotic gingivitis, periodontal disease or washing gargle. Potassium Permanganate contact of clothes will leave traces of brown, with oxalic acid in water and rubbing can be removed.
By Potassium Permanganate solution can appear a series of gastrointestinal irritation symptoms, such as mouth throat burning, swelling, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, speech, swallowing and breathing difficulties, serious when, can also occur in proteinuria, lethal dose of 10g. The solution should be prepared fresh, slightly long time reduction of failure. Not with the reducing agents such as glycerol, iodine, sugar and other research, in order to prevent explosion. High concentration of irritating to the skin.
0.1- commonly used solution orally, treatment of cattle and sheep stomach before, horse and other animal acute gastroenteritis, diarrhea etc.. Poultry drinking with 0.01- solution, 0.1- solution external flushing Mucosa And skin wounds, ulcers. 0.05- ~ 0.1- solution gastric lavage, for oral administration of some organic compounds poisoning; 1- solution for snakebite wound irrigation. The pond Splash: per liter of 4 ~ 5mg Potassium Permanganate solution treatment, fish, crustaceans, mildew and protozoan parasites. 30 minutes per liter of water bath 100mg concentration, treatment of salmon roe membrane osteomalacia. Commonly used 0.1- ~ 0.12- solution disinfection by viruses and bacteria contamination of the hive. The combined use of Potassium Permanganate with formalin, and can be used for livestock (poultry) homes, hatching room air disinfection.
Effect of disinfection and sterilization in different concentration solution:The high concentration of the solution Potassium Permanganate irritating and corrosive to the organization, 4- solution can be sterilized feeder and other appliances. The oxidation performance acceleration Faure Marin Evaporation, can be used for air disinfection, disinfectants commonly used for family essential.
1 Deep Purple solution (about 0.3- concentration): with oxidizing strong, strong sterilization ability. Can be used for disinfection appliances, spittoon.
2 purple red solution (about 0.05- concentration): itching, anti-inflammatory and anti infection spread use, can be used for extraction of tinea pedis.
3 roses red solution (about 0.01- concentration): Vegetable & Fruit and tableware disinfection. Disinfection apparatus, by 1 ∶ Potassium Permanganate powder for 1000 15 minutes, rinse with water. Fruits and vegetables were contaminated with bacteria, the concentration of solution soak 5 minutes sterilization, without changing the color and flavor of fruits and vegetables. The concentration of the solution can be used in medical dip mucosal sites, such as hemorrhoids. Anti infection, anti itching, pain equivalent.
4 light cherry red solution (about 0.002- concentration): can be used to gargle, oral inflammation and prevent dental caries, anti-inflammatory effect of deodorization, helps to reduce the emission of indecent smell. Also can be used as antidote, drink this solution concentration, pressure throat with his fingers, the vomit, the drug was not absorbed or poison spit out, and the drug residues in stomach or poison was Potassium Permanganate oxidation and failure.
GynaecologyAspect.Potassium Permanganate 0.01- aqueous solution can be used for vaginal irrigation; 0.02- aqueous solution for sitz bath, treating leukorrhagia; honeymoon, with 0.05- water solution to clean the vulva, can prevent urinary system infection. The higher incidence of female hemorrhoids, with water solution of 0.1- sitting basin soaked, can relieve itching and pain, preventing infection, promoting the prolapsed hemorrhoids reset.
Potassium Permanganate has bactericidal effect, many women use it to clean perineal, even with the Potassium Permanganate lotion to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, it does not play this role.
Potassium Permanganate cannot prevent sexually transmitted diseases, there are two reasons. First of all, the killing effect of Potassium Permanganate solution on the virus, fungi and parasites is extremely weak, caused by sexually transmitted pathogens are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites and other. Surface and many pathogens not only exists in the vulva, also lurk in the urogenital tract and vaginal mucosa plica in deep. So, it can not be Potassium Permanganate cleaning vulva of these pathogens clearance, not venereal disease.
But Potassium Permanganate does the cleaning effect of privates on. Potassium Permanganate solution of low concentration, can wash skin wounds, ulcers, thrush, abscess. For women, Potassium Permanganate solution of different concentration for cleaning pudenda, actual use, put a few grains Potassium Permanganate lotion is formulated in a pot of water, will be able to play the role of clean pudenda. Men can also use Potassium Permanganate lotion clean private parts, general concentration of 0.1-.
Some vaginitis can not use. If the long-term use of female Potassium Permanganate lotion, will normally parasitize vaginal and is conducive to the maintenance of the acidic environment of vaginal Bacillus large kill, cause the pathogenic bacteria breeding. Not finding inflammation of the vagina, with Potassium Permanganate solution bath. Bacterial sex vaginitis and trichomonad sex vaginitis can Potassium Permanganate water solution bath as adjuvant therapy, and mould sex vaginitis with Potassium Permanganate treatment, not only can not inhibit fungal reproduction, sometimes even worse. Because of Potassium Permanganate slower onset, must soak for 5 minutes to kill bacteria. It should also be noted, in the preparation of Potassium Permanganate lotion to use cold boiling water, hot water will make the decomposition failure. Prepared solution usually can only save two hours or so, when the solution becomes brown purple when lost, disinfection effect.
Women use Potassium Permanganate should be careful, it is best to use below doctor guidance, not finding the vulva or vagina inflammation, immediately Potassium Permanganate water solution bath, but shall be confirmed to belong to what kind of vaginitis. In addition, not long-term use Potassium Permanganate, lest of the vagina flora disturbance. The use of Potassium Permanganate should also pay attention to, because Potassium Permanganate release oxygen speed, immersion time to 5 minutes to kill bacteria.
Usage and dosage: preparing water solution to use cold boiling water, hot water will make the decomposition failure. Preparation of aqueous solution good usually can only save two hours or so, when the solution becomes brown purple when lost, disinfection effect. It is best used with the distribution.
Due to the large demand for laboratory, Potassium Permanganate is manufacturing scale of. There are two kinds of preparation methods of common: Ore In the manganese dioxide and potassium hydroxide in the air or mixture of potassium nitrate (with oxygen) heating, produce potassium manganate, then in alkaline solution and oxidizing agent to get the Potassium Permanganate electrolysis. Or it could be through Mn and Two lead oxide (PbO) or sodium bismuthate (NaBiO) have strong oxidizing reaction. This reaction is also used to test the existence of Mn, because Potassium Permanganate color obviously.
Preparation of KMnO industry4Simple method is using a platinum cathode electrolytic oxidation of K2MnO4: first using KOH containing 60-MnO2The ore into K2MnO4Again, electrolytic oxidation KMnO4.
Aqueous potassium hydroxide and manganese dioxide and potassium chlorate to boil, evaporation, slag melting into paste with water after soaking, recanalization by chlorine, carbon dioxide and ozone, or with alkaline solution electrolytic manganese salt can also be prepared.
KMnO4Also available with PbO2Or NaBiO3In alkaline conditions, manganese (II) salt to produce, low alkali concentration is conducive to the formation of manganese (Ⅱ).
Roasting electrolytic method: Pyrolusite and KOH mixed into the paste, the material is sprayed into the roasting furnace with compressed air, oxidation of potassium permanganate in 250~300 ℃. Roasting with dilute alkali solution or wash water leaching, filtering, removing impurity potassium manganate.
Solid phase mass transfer, heat transfer due to difficulties, poor operating environment, large equipment, high energy consumption, will gradually be eliminated. The process and solution of potassium manganate electrolytic oxidation method in the same Potassium Permanganate. As a food additive Potassium Permanganate, also need through recrystallization to remove the heavy metals and arsenic.
Liquid phase oxidation electrolytic method: soft manganese ore (0.074mm) mixed with 200 ℃ above 80- potassium hydroxide solution, and at 300 ℃, the air in the first reactor, the manganese dioxide is oxidized into sub potassium manganate, then overflow to the second reactor further oxidation of potassium permanganate. The reaction liquid is hot filtering, washing with KOH solution at 100 ℃, 60- of the filter cake, soluble in dilute alkali solution or wash water, precipitation, separation and purification to obtain potassium manganate.
The potassium permanganate system inside electrolytic end liquid modulation into electrolytic initial liquid, composed of the following: potassium manganate ≥ 180g/L; Potassium carbonate <60/L; potassium hydroxide 50~60g/L. Electrolytic initial electrolysis bath into the steel at 60 ℃ made of nickel plate, anode (or nickel plated steel), with iron cathode. The anode and the cathode area ratio of 1: (8 ~ 10), the current capacity is 1000A/m3, the anodic current density was 60 ~ 100A/m2, the cell voltage of 2.25 ~ 2.5V, 50 ~ 100mm, plate distance. The potassium permanganate oxidized at the anode Potassium Permanganate, most of the crystallization. Potassium Permanganate crude cooling after centrifugal separation to content is about 94-, the content Potassium Permanganate after recrystallization crystallization of 99.3-.
Electrolytic end liquor containing manganese purple red, 300~400g/L, potassium hydroxide 110~120g/L, and electrolysis with potassium carbonate, the evaporation of recycling respectively, partial electrolytic end liquid return system modulation electrolytic initial solution.
Inhalation can cause Respiratory tract Damage. Splash eyes, stimulation Conjunctiva To burn, or. Stimulation of the skin. The concentrated solution or crystallization corrosive to the skin. Oral oral and corrosion The digestive tract Appear inside the mouth, burning sensation, upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, oropharyngeal swelling etc.. Oral dosage big, oral mucosa were brown black, swelling, erosion, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody stool, shock, and finally died of circulatory failure.
Not to be used for the cleaning utensil in daily life (residues still has toxicity) and purified water, but in the earthquake and other extreme environment in addition to the way can drink urine situations can be considered and iodine as drinking water to bleach concentration does not exceed 0.03-
The products of combustion, corrosive, irritant, causing burns to human body. It can be associated with organic matter in outdoor activities (such as: sugar), sawdust mixed friction.
Using water, water mist, Sand Fire extinguishing.